Sunday, March 31, 2019

Literature Review of Gender and Stalking

Literature look back of sexuality and angry walkAn door to Issues of Gender in straw Research straw has been the subject of trial-and-error examination for a little over 20 long time. Interest in chaff two(prenominal)(prenominal) empirical and globe has increased unattack adaptedly inside the last decennary (see Figure 1). A PsycINFO search of the first decade of walk inquiry yields only 74 hits. In contrast, the year 2000 label an upswing of serious probe with the macrocosmation of the first special step to the fore on walk (Frieze Davis, 2000). at that place were 56 publications on still hunt in 2000 merely and over 600 publications on the topic published mingled with 2000 and 2010.The interrogation on shuck has examined predictors of delegacy, consequences of dupeisation, and public perceptions of rooting. Within for each(prenominal) sensation of these domains, i of the lingering ch solelyenges has been what economic consumption does sexual activity match in stubble? Accordingly, this special exhaust is intend to contri thoe to the literature by utilize sexual activity as a focus taper in 1) applying new theoretical perspectives to the test of straw perpetration (Davis, Swan, Gambone, this cut back Duntley Buss, this issue), 2) extending our knowledge of wo workforce and work forces (Sheridan Lyndon, this issue Thompson, Dennison, Stewart, this issue) angry walk follow throughs, and 3) furthering the study of perceptions of walk (Cass Rosay, this issue Dunlap, Hodell, Golding, Wasarhaley, this issue Sinclair, this issue Yanowitz Yanowitz, this issue).To place this special issue in context of the manpowerses pronounce of knowledge on sexual activity and wheating, we go forth brushup the state of the current query on examining the role of sexual activity with regard to still hunt dupeization, perpetration, and the lay and effectual perceptions of stalk. We will conclude with a summar y of how each of the articles admitd herein contribute to our knowledge close the role of sex in straw question. However, it is important to start with explain what is meant by the barrier chaff.The model federal anti- shuck law in the US legally defines chaff as a course of conduct order at a specific person that submits repeated visual or animal(prenominal) proximity, nonconsensual communication, or verbal, written, or implied holy terrors, or a combination at that placeof, that would trend a average person aid (National Criminal Justice linkup Project, 1993, p. 43-44). Legal definitions blast issue crosswise US states, but they tend to study three characteristics 1) a pattern or course of conduct 2) of uncalled-for or trespassing(prenominal) fireing behaviors that 3) induces awe of bodily harm or substantial emotional grief in the target (Spitzberg, Cupach, Ciceraro, 2010). Additional terminology has been use in shuck research to discuss cast-off(pre nominal) forethought, in particular from a ro parttic absorbr, that does non meet the fear or substantial straiten criteria of anti- chaff laws. Alternative labels for these un passiond behaviors excised in during search of a romanticistic race include throwaway(prenominal) chase (Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Pal bea, Cohen, Rohling, 2000), pre- shuck (Emerson, Ferris, Gardner, 1998), obsessive relational attack (ORI Cupach Spitzberg, 1998, 2004), harass custodyt, or throwaway(prenominal) courtship persistence (Sinclair Frieze, 2000).Whether gender discordences whitethorn go forth, particularly in perpetration and using statistics, whitethorn depend on whether the police detective is examining husk or unwelcome pursuit. In fact, as will be discussed throughout this paper, very much(prenominal) of the debate nearly gender remnants is largely receivable to two variables 1) how stubble is operationalized and 2) what essay is examined. We figure to these issues, and former(a)s, first starting with our review of the stalking victimization literature. Note, our focus for the duration of this paper is on the dominant form of stalking stalking that occurs within a relational context.Victims sensation of the questions surrounding gender differences in stalking research is whether wo workforce atomic number 18 to a greater extent presumable to be victims of stalking than hands. Statistics clearly indicate that the legal age of stalking cases a great deal take ups the rejection of an advise relationship (Baum et al., 2009 Spitzberg Cupach, 2007 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998). Historically, lettered assertiveness (e.g., domestic ferocity, fellowship rape) has been perceived as synonymous with strength against wo workforce because it was believed that the majority of intimate encroach ment targeted women. However, this belief that victims of intimate aggression argon disproportionately fe manful has been arguable (see Archer, 2000). Likewise, we play that the avouchment that stalking victims atomic number 18 predominantly women is non without its controversy.In the first US guinea pig study of stalking victimization, Tjaden and Thoennes (1998) motifed that 8% of women and 1.1% of men delimit qualified as stalking victims when the definition was confine to those who argon were highly afraid. The victimization rate climbs climbed to 13% of women and 2.2% of men when any(prenominal)what afraid is was used. Thus, a gender difference was still quite app argonnt when fear was a criterion. In contrast, the British Crime Survey (Budd Mattinson, 2000), which did not require each receives of fear, cut throughed that 4% of women and 1.7% of men were victims of persistent and unsuitable attention. In a to a greater extent(prenominal) recent US national survey, Baum et al. (2009) shew that to a greater extent stalking victims were women than men when exploitation the legal definition that includes victim fear. In contrast, no gender difference emerged in harassment victimization, which does not include the fear requirement. Further, all of these studies show that women be to a greater extent believably to be pedunculate by a anterior intimate than men, who ar followly akinly to be stalked by conversancys or intimates.When centering on unwished pursuits, which can include stalking, in the relational contextS studies examining casteless(prenominal) pursuit reach to grapple with definitional issues as tumefy as issues of sample. Studies of casteless pursuit and ORI atomic number 18 primarily conducted among American college bookmans and stir a lot plunge few or small gender differences in pass judgment of casteless pursuit victimization. Among US college scholarly persons, women and men who rejected a romantic relationship did not differ in their continues of experiencing casteless pursuit behaviors, such as following and threats of corporeal assault ( e.g., Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Phillips et al., 2004 Sinclair Frieze, 2000 Spitzberg, Nicastro, Cousins, 1998). When differences be build, they whitethorn be minimal.Overall, Spitzberg et al.s (2010) in style(p) meta-analysis of US college disciples who go through persistent pursuit put that women were 55% much in all probability to sacrifice been pursued than men. Comparing these statistics with national statistics which realise women 3-7 quantify to a greater extent probably to be stalked, a difference of .55 seems minimal. Clearly how one concludes whether al nearone is a victim of stalking depends not only on how one asks the question (requiring fear or not) but who one is ask (college sample vs. national sample). Yet, it seems safe to conclude that women do outnumber men when it comes to victimization rates.To idolatry or Not to FearWhere consistent gender differences stupefy been tack together is that women atomic number 18 more than than( prenominal) presumable to view unclaimed pursuit as stakeing (Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Spitzberg et al., 2010). The inclusion of fear appears to decrease preponderance rates for men, as men ar slight in all likeliness to depict fear than ar women (Bjerregaard, 2000 Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Davis, Ace, Andra, 2000 Emerson et al., 1998 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a). This difference in get acrosss of fear could be collectible to men authenticly not feeling afraid, only rooting they atomic number 18 not afraid, or experiencing less unplayful stalking behavior. It is difficult to analyse the true reason. In general, men appear less instinctive to report fear imputable to accessiblely desirable responding (Sutton Farrall, 2005) and men price reduction their assay of victimization (Stanko Hobdell, 1993). Also, M galore(postnominal) male victims of stalking do not perceive any threat from their pursuers and thusly do not identify their experience as stalking (Tjaden, Tho ennes, Allison, 2000 Sheridan, et al., 2002). phallic victims of interpersonal fierceness report they argon more promising to fight down with laughter than atomic number 18 women (Romito Grassi, 2007) and men discount their insecurity of victimization (Stanko Hobdell, 1993). Likewise, Emerson, Ferris, and Gardners (1998) US lodge sample of victims give outed that men felt less vulnerable and endanger than did women. Men who do essay cherishion from their ex-girl relay links whitethorn experience daily sociable sanctions (Hall, 1998) and be treated with contempt or laughter by legal professionals (Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2001). Accordingly, both(prenominal)(prenominal) commit argued that the laws strain on fear reduces male prevalence rates (Tjaden et al., 2000) and may be given people to discount male victims who may actually contract supporter from law enforcement (Baum et. al, 2009 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998). accentuation fear in stalking definitions may in addit ion affect womens reporting of intimate match stalking. angry walk targeting women is primarily perpetrated by intimates (Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a), but women are paradoxically more afraid of strangers (Pain, 1996). For example, Dietz and Martin (2007) ground that women were more afraid of strangers than of boyfriends. Also, Dunn (1999) present how a group of sorority women describe that they would feel nervous if a man suddenly showed up at their doorstep, but lay out it romantic and praise if he showed up with flowers especially when he was . The women alike felt more flattered byan ex-partner, s than byrather than a casual dates winning in the uniform behaviors. Women may thus be more likely than men to minimize undesired pursuit when it can be interpreted as romantic (Dunn, 1999 Emerson et al., 1998 Lee, 1998), magical spell men may be more uninterested in general. relative frequency counts of stalking thus may not put the whole boloney of stalking victimization. For example, general cosmos samples in the UK and the US (Budd Mattinson, 2000 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a) find that women are victims of intimate partner stalking, magic spell men are equally likely to be stalked by partners and acquaintances (exception Purcell et al.s, 2001 Australian clinical sample) so enchantment it is true that intimate partner stalking is the nigh prevalent subject, in that respect are fairly antitheticalial experiences for women and men.Consequences Coping crimson if it is the case that men and women may be targeted in equal rime by unwanted pursuit behaviors (Bjerregaard, 2000 Haugaard Seri, 2004 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Spitzberg et al., 1998), thither are differences in the continue of that unwanted attention. Stalking victims report a wide range of negatively charged consequences, including psychological health problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, PTSD symptomotology), physiologic health problems (e.g., disturbances in appetenc e and sleep, headaches, nausea, and hurt from the perpetrator), economical losses (e.g., spending money on antifertility efforts, lost wages, and expenses), and social losses (e.g., losing touch with friends, getting unlisted mobilize come, reducing social activities) (see Bjerregaard, 2000 Centers for Disease Control, 2003 Davis et al., 2002 Dressing, Kuehner, Gass, 2005 Kamphuis Emmelkamp, 2001 Path Mullen, 1997 Sheridan, Davies, Boon, 2001). Even if it is the case that men and women may be targeted in equal numbers by unwanted pursuit behaviors (Bjerregaard, 2000 Haugaard Seri, 2004 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Spitzberg et al., 1998), there are differences in the violation of that unwanted attention. Of these consequences, Davis et al. (2000) install that In admittance to finding that young-bearing(prenominal) stalking victims had a high(prenominal)(prenominal) risk of physical and mental health problems than male victims. Further,, once again highlighting the wideness of fear, Davis et al. (2000) found that greater fear was associated with greater health problems for women, but not for men. Also, Bjerregaard (2000) found that pistillate victims of stalking were more likely to give been physically harmed by their stoolie than were male victims, and describe greater impact on their emotional health. It may seem as if one could draw the mop up that women suffer greater health consequences (Jordan, 2009), but this finale is not without its exceptions (Pimlott-Kubiak Cortina, 2003 Wigman, 2009) Stalking is similarly comorbid with physical, sexual, and psychological abhorrence feminine stalking victims experience (Brewster, 2003 Coleman, 1997 Jordan, Wilcox, Pritchard, 2007 Logan, Leukefeld, Walker, 2000 Mechanic, Uhlmansick, Weaver, Resick, 2000 Spitzberg Rhea, 1999 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998). Among buffet women, Mechanic and colleagues (Mechanic et al., 2000 Mechanic et al., 2002) have found that experiencing stalking contr ibutes to higher levels of depression, fear, and stock traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than physical abuse alone.TRANSITION NEEDED. Stalking victims take a pattern of steps to protect themselves, including confronting the sneak (or having a threesome party do so), changing their home(a), coach, or workplace, or seek a protection order (Path Mullen, 1997 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a). Some of the closely common deal tactics for stalking victims film a passive voice strategy, with tactics like ignoring or anformer(a)(prenominal)(a)wise minimizing the problem (college students, Amar Alexy, 2010, Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Fremouw et al., 1997 Jason, Reichler, Easton, Neal, Wilson, 1984, self-identified victims in a Dutch community Kamphpuis, Emmelkamp, Bartak, 2003). Women are more likely than men to seek help in general. In particular, women are more likely than men to seek rede and to file a protection order (Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a), and to take more guarantor precautions, including avoiding people or places (Budd Mattinson, 2000), and to confide in a close friend or family member for help (Spitzberg et al., 1998). In their study on unwanted pursuit in US college students, Cupach and Spitzberg (2000) found that women reported more fundamental interaction (e.g., yelled at the person), and protection (e.g., called the police), and less penalize (e.g., threatened physical harm) than men. both genders coped using evasion (e.g., ignored them). However, duration men and women had different help-seeking patterns, the differences themselves were very small (Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Spitzberg, 2002).In sum, gender differences emerge in more dangerous experiences, which usually involve a legally-defined frightful victim found in general population samples and those drawn from clinical or rhetorical populations (Baum, Catalano, Rand, Rose, 2009 Bjerregaard, 2000 Sheridan, Gillett, Davies, 2002 vs. Sheridan, Davies, Boon, 2001 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998). I n contrast, studies employing college student samples that use a non-fear base definition often do not find such gender differences (Cupach Spitzberg, 1998, 2000 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Phillips et al., 2004 Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2002). Meta-analyses have shown that clinical and rhetorical samples do have higher prevalence rates than student or community samples clinical and rhetorical samples as well break out a stronger pattern of male perpetrators and female victims (Spitzberg, 2002 Spitzberg Cupach, 2007 Spitzberg, Cupach, Ciceraro, 2010). We may conclude that there are meaningful gender differences in the experience of stalking, but some of these differences may be minimal (Spitzberg et al., 2010).PerpetratorsWhen it comes to examining gender differences in stalking perpetration, we are confronted with some of the same issues. It makes a difference whether we are examining stalking or, more broadly, unwanted pursuit behaviors. It also matters which sample is cosmos examined. However, gender differences in rates of perpetration seem easier to come by. The issue of whether men stalk more than women is subject to one of the problems that drive questions of victimization which samples we study. The issue of whether stalking is operationalized using the requirement that victims feel fear is trickier. We banking concern use the same standard with perpetrators, who may not be able or willing to convey whether their victim was fearful. While we may assume that aggressive stalking behaviors like vandalism, threats, and physical harm are more severe than masking up unexpectedly or repeated mobilize calls, the meaning and impact of these behaviors may be similar. Depending upon the context of the behavior, even uppity declarations of love may lead to probable cause for fear (Emerson et al. 1998). However, as with victimization studies, males and females in some college student samples report no gender differences in amiable in unwanted pu rsuit behaviors toward an intimate partner (Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Dutton Winstead, 2006 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Sinclair Frieze, 2000). For example, Baum et al.s (2009) found in the data from a US national US survey revealed that virtually 60% of stalkers were male, 28% were female, and the rest were unable to be identified by their victim. Overall, Spitzberg and Cupachs (2003) meta-analysis found that males make up 82% of stalkers, while females represent 18% of stalkers. HoweverIn sum, the most recent meta-analysis of stalking and unwanted pursuit found that 23.90% of men have perpetrated stalking behavior, while compared to 11.92% of women did so (Spitzberg Cupach, 2010).However, as with victimization studies, some college student surveys reveal no gender differences in engaging in unwanted pursuit behaviors toward an intimate partner (Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Dutton Winstead, 2006 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Sinclair Frieze, 2000). College students of t report engaging in unwanted pursuit behaviors, with up to 99% doing at to the lowest degree one (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Sinclair Frieze, 2000). Between 30 and 36% of Davis et al.s (2000) US college student sample reported engaging in one to five dollar bill acts, and 7 to 10% reported six or more. The most keep going behaviors are various(a) forms of unwanted communication and showing up at work/home/school. Aggressive pursuit behaviors are more unprecedented (Davis et al., 2000 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000). In general, unwanted pursuit perpetration in college students involves similar numbers of male and female perpetrators, while stalking among general or clinical populations is predominantly perpetrated by men (Allen, Swan, Raghavan, 2009 Baum et al., 2009 Budd Mattinson, 2000 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a).This pattern parallels the findings regarding dating and domestic violence perpetration. Like the pattern between unwanted pursuit and stalking, dating violence and domestic violence involve similar behaviors with differing prevalence rates, predictors of perpetration, and consequences for women and men (Archer, 2000 Bookwala, Frieze, Smith, Ryan, 1992). In this sense, less severe levels of unwanted pursuit or harassment may mirror Johnsons (1995) course of common couple violence, while more severe levels of stalking equal intimate terrorism (Johnson Ferraro, 2000). The debate of whether gender shapes the experience of IPV leads to research comparing the quantity of male and female victims and perpetrators, but also whether experiences are qualitatively different. In opposite words, are there gender differences in who perpetrators stalk their choice of stalking behaviors, and their of necessity?Types of BehaviorsThere is some yard that women and men let in slightly different individual stalking behaviors. In both rhetorical and college student samples in the US and Australia, men are m ore likely to make in-person contact (e.g., access code behavior Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Sinclair Frieze, 2000), to follow their victims or loiter (Purcell et al., 2001 Purcell et al., 2010), and to inflict property damage (Purcell et al., 2010). Women, on the other hand, are more likely to engage in behaviors that do not confront the target face-to-face, such as devising unwanted calls or leaving unwanted phone messages (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Purcell et al., 2001 Purcell et al., 2010), spreading rumors, or employing others in harassing the victim (Purcell et al., 2010). These patterns are not universal, however, as Dutton and Winstead (2006)s US college student sample found that women reported more monitoring and physically painful sensation their targets than men.In monetary value of cyberstalking behaviors,. Burke, Wallen, Vail-Smith, and Knox (2011) found that US college student men were more likely than women to report experiencing and engaging in the use of spyware, photos, and cameras to monitor and pursue their partner (e.g., using GPS devices, web cams, and spyware to monitor their partner). In contrast, college student women were more likely to report inordinate communication and checking behaviors (e.g., checking cell phone and electronic mail histories, making excessive phone calls and e-mails, checking social networking sites, and using their partners passwords).. However, in a study on pursuit behaviors perpetrated on Facebook, Lyndon, Bonds-Raacke, and Cratty (in press) found no gender differences in US college students in the three types of behaviors people perpetrated on Facebook to harass their ex-partner covert exacerbation (20-54% e.g., post poetry or lyrics in side updates to taunt ex-partner), emission (7-11% e.g., write inappropriate or mean things about ex-partner on Facebook), and public harassment (3-10% e.g., create a false Facebook compose of ex-partner). Thus far the ambiguity about whether gend er differences exist in cyberpursuit appears to mirror the findings regarding unwanted pursuit behaviors for women and men, but we need more research on using technology to stalkcyberstalking, especially with perpetrators.One of the most mechanical press questions regarding stalking is when it major power escalate into physically red behaviors. most(prenominal) stalkers, however, are not tough (Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2004 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a) half(prenominal) of all stalking cases involve a threat and just beneath a triplet of all stalking cases involve physical violence. Both male and female stalkers are more likely to be ruby-red if they are an ex-intimate, are young than 30 age of age, have less than a high school education, and have do introductory threats (Rosenfeld Harmon, 2002). former(a) predictors of stalking-related violence include prior criminal convictions (Mullen et al., 1999 Palrea, Zona, Lane, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 1999). almost stalkers, howev er, are not violent (Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2004 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a) half of all stalking cases involve a threat and just under a third of all stalking cases involve physical violence. order is mixed as to whether there are gender differences in those who are likely to get under ones skin violent.Some research using US college student samples suggest that female unwanted pursuit perpetrators of unwanted pursuit engage in more mild aggressive stalking behaviors than men (Dutton Winstead, 2006 Williams Frieze, 2005). However, other college student samples reveal no gender differences in perpetration of stalking violence (Haugaard Seri, 2004 Sinclair Frieze, 2002). StillIn contrast, others find that men are more likely than women to threaten their victims (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000) and to escalate from threats to physical assaults, as reported in both Australian forensic samples (Purcell et al., 2001) and meta-analyses (Spitzberg Cupach, 2007). origin romantic p artnersEx-intimate stalkers, who are mostly male, are the most violent compared to other categories of stalkers, a pattern that is consistent across finishing and sample type (McEwan, Mullen, MacKenzie, Ogloff, 2009 Meloy, Davis, Lovette, 2001 Mohandie, Meloy, McGowan, Williams, 2006 Palrea, Zona, Lane, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 1999 Sheridan, Blaauw, Davies, 2003 Sheridan Davies, 2001). Given that men are more likely to stalk ex-intimate partners than women (Spitzberg Cupach, 2007 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998), it seems that we should find more male-perpetrated stalking violence.However, other college student samples and forensic samples reveal no gender differences in perpetration of stalking violence (Haugaard Seri, 2004 Sinclair Frieze, 2002). HoweverFor example, current indicate with forensic samples shows no gender differences in actual stalking cases regarding stalker lethality (Mullen et al., 1999 Purcell et al., 2001 Rosenfeld Lewis, 2005). Specifically, both male and f emale stalkers can turn violent if they are an ex-intimate, are younger than 30 years of age, have less than a high school education, and have make prior threats (Rosenfeld Harmon, 2002). Evidently, more research is needed to sort out whether gender is a useful predictor of extreme stalking and violence.Motivations and ViolenceWhile there are some differences in how men and women pursue, there also may be some differences in their motivations for doing so. Victims in general population studies often attribute the stalkers motivation to attempts to keep them in a relationship, as well as a desire to control the them (Budd Mattinson, 2000 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a). Mullen and colleagues (1999) have classified their samples of clinical and forensic stalkers in Australia into five motivation groups rejected, companionship-seeker, incompetent suitor, resentful, and predatory types, but have not found consistent gender differences between the groups. Stalking behaviors appear to be moti vated most commonly by intimacy (e.g., a desire for atonement and feelings of love), with the second most common origin universe aggression retaliation (e.g., a desire for revenge Spitzberg Cupach, 2007). In fact, perpetrators often report both motives for reconciliation of a relationship and for revenge (Mullen, Path, Purcell, Stuart, 1999 Spitzberg Cupach, 2007). These Cclinical/forensic rejected stalkers who are motivated by a mix of reconciliation and revenge needs have a higher likelihood of assaulting their victims than other motivation groups (Mullen et al., 2006).Gender differences in motivations for stalking have been noted in young forensic samples. Juvenile female stalkers more likely to be motivated by bullying and retaliation whereas juvenile male stalkers were have been found to be motivated more by rejection and sexual depredation (Purcell et al., 2010). In a 2001 study of adult stalkers in Australia, Purcell and colleagues found that women were more likely t o target professional acquaintances and less likely to target strangers than men. Nonetheless, the majority of female stalkers were still clearly motivated by the desire to settle intimacy with their target, whereas mens motivations were diverse, spreading across the five categories. Likewise, in Meloys (2003) study of 82 female stalkers from the US, Canada, and Australia, he found the female stalkers were more likely to be motivated by a desire to demonstrate intimacy, whereas men were know to stalk to restore intimacy. Ultimately, Tthere is a large faulting in stalking motivation research, particularly using non-forensic samples.Clinical/forensic rejected stalkers who are motivated by a mix of reconciliation and revenge needs have a higher likelihood of assaulting their victims than other motivation groups (Mullen et al., 2006). Both male and female stalkers are more likely to be violent if they are an ex-intimate, are younger than 30 years of age, have less than a high school education, and have made prior threats (Rosenfeld Harmon, 2002). Other predictors of stalking-related violence include prior criminal convictions (Mullen et al., 1999 Palrea, Zona, Lane, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 1999). Most stalkers, however, are not violent (Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2004 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a) half of all stalking cases involve a threat and just under a third of all stalking cases involve physical violence.Evidence is mixed as to whether there are gender differences in those who are likely to rick violent. Some research using US college student samples suggest that female unwanted pursuit perpetrators engage in more mild aggressive stalking behaviors (Dutton Winstead, 2006 Williams Frieze, 2005). However, other college student samples reveal no gender differences in perpetration of stalking violence (Haugaard Seri, 2004 Sinclair Frieze, 2002). Still others find that men are more likely than women to threaten their victims (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 ) and to escalate from threats to physical assaults, as reported in both Australian forensic samples (Purcell et al., 2001) and meta-analyses (Spitzberg Cupach, 2007). Former romantic partners are the most violent compared to other categories of stalkers, a pattern that is consistent across culture and sample type (McEwan, Mullen, MacKenzie, Ogloff, 2009 Meloy, Davis, Lovette, 2001 Mohandie, Meloy, McGowan, Williams, 2006 Palrea, Zona, Lane, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 1999 Sheridan, Blaauw, Davies, 2003 Sheridan Davies, 2001). Given that men are more likely to stalk ex-intimate partners than women (Spitzberg Cupach, 2007 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998), it seems that we should find more male-perpetrated stalking violence. However, current try with forensic samples shows no gender differences in actual stalking cases regarding stalker lethality (Mullen et al., 1999 Purcell et al., 2001 Rosenfeld Lewis, 2005).Single surveys of Ccollege student samples ofabout unwanted pursuit and obses sive relational onslaught are the least likely to find fewgender differences in perpetration rates. However, meta-analyses and US and UK general population studies find that men are more likely to be stalking perpetrators than women, regardless of the victims gender (Baum et al., 2009 Budd Mattinson, 2000 Spitzberg, 2002 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a).While the size of this gender difference varies, it is consistent across methodologies (Spitzberg Cupach, 2003). There are some gender differences in the types of stalking and cyberstalking perpetrationbehaviors e.g., men being more direct and women more mediate and in pursuers motives women being predominantly motivated by intimacy-seeking and men having a broader array of motives. However, we need more research on perpetration to pause understand if gender is an important predictor to consider, especially with regard to the likelihood of escalation. with a variety of samples and with better means of differentiating unwanted pursuit from stalking.Perceptions of stalkingAs attention to the problem of stalking has increased, so has public thought been shaped. However, there is not a true consensus in these opinions. Rather, people variegate in how much they understand about stalking. It can be ill-defined when the line between normal relational pursuit and stalking is get over (Dunn, 1999 Emerson et al., 1998 Lee, 1998 Sinclair Frieze, 2000, 2005). Perceptions can also diverge regarding multiple issues including 1) which behaviors suffice as stalking, 2) how many behavior are enough to represent a course of conduct, 3) is stalking really serious, 4) what perpetrator intent may have been, 5) whether and how we should incorporate victim fear levels to examine stalking severity, and 6) what is real stalking (e.g., stranger vs. acquaintance stalking). Within each of these issues, gender may influence the perceptions people hold, both lay persons and legal decision-makers.Stalking in the Eye of the Beholder Th e social function of Perceiver GenderThe literature is still mixed as to whether men and women differ in judgments to use a label of stalking. Some researchers report that men and women do not differ in terms of which behaviors qualify as stalking (e.g., Kinkade, Burns, Fuentes, 2005 Phillips et al., 2004, in Experiment 1 Sheridan Davies, 2001 Sheridan, Davies, Boon, 2001 Sheridan et al., 2002 Sheridan, Gillet, Davies, Blaauw, Patel, 2003). Others have foundLiterature Review of Gender and StalkingLiterature Review of Gender and StalkingAn Introduction to Issues of Gender in Stalking ResearchStalking has been the subject of empirical examination for a little over 20 years. Interest in stalking both empirical and public has increased substantially within the last decade (see Figure 1). A PsycINFO search of the first decade of stalking research yields only 74 hits. In contrast, the year 2000 marked an upswing of serious investigation with the publication of the first special iss ue on stalking (Frieze Davis, 2000). There were 56 publications on stalking in 2000 alone and over 600 publications on the topic published between 2000 and 2010.The research on stalking has examined predictors of perpetration, consequences of victimization, and public perceptions of stalking. Within each of these domains, one of the lingering questions has been what role does gender play in stalking? Accordingly, this special issue is intended to contribute to the literature by using gender as a focus point in 1) applying new theoretical perspectives to the study of stalking perpetration (Davis, Swan, Gambone, this issue Duntley Buss, this issue), 2) extending our knowledge of women and mens (Sheridan Lyndon, this issue Thompson, Dennison, Stewart, this issue) stalking experiences, and 3) furthering the study of perceptions of stalking (Cass Rosay, this issue Dunlap, Hodell, Golding, Wasarhaley, this issue Sinclair, this issue Yanowitz Yanowitz, this issue).To place this spe cial issue in context of the current state of knowledge on gender and stalking, we will review the state of the current research on examining the role of gender with regard to stalking victimization, perpetration, and the lay and legal perceptions of stalking. We will conclude with a summary of how each of the articles included herein contribute to our knowledge about the role of gender in stalking research. However, it is important to start with clarifying what is meant by the term stalking.The model federal anti-stalking law in the US legally defines stalking as a course of conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated visual or physical proximity, nonconsensual communication, or verbal, written, or implied threats, or a combination thereof, that would cause a reasonable person fear (National Criminal Justice Association Project, 1993, p. 43-44). Legal definitions differ across US states, but they tend to have three characteristics 1) a pattern or course of conduct 2) of unwanted or intrusive harassing behaviors that 3) induces fear of bodily harm or substantial emotional distress in the target (Spitzberg, Cupach, Ciceraro, 2010). Additional terminology has been used in stalking research to discuss unwanted attention, particularly from a romantic pursuer, that does not meet the fear or substantial distress criteria of anti-stalking laws. Alternative labels for these unwanted behaviors engaged in during pursuit of a romantic relationship include unwanted pursuit (Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Palarea, Cohen, Rohling, 2000), pre-stalking (Emerson, Ferris, Gardner, 1998), obsessive relational intrusion (ORI Cupach Spitzberg, 1998, 2004), harassment, or unwanted courtship persistence (Sinclair Frieze, 2000).Whether gender differences may emerge, particularly in perpetration and victimization statistics, may depend on whether the researcher is examining stalking or unwanted pursuit. In fact, as will be discussed throughout this paper, much of the de bate about gender differences is largely due to two variables 1) how stalking is operationalized and 2) what sample is examined. We turn to these issues, and others, first starting with our review of the stalking victimization literature. Note, our focus for the duration of this paper is on the dominant form of stalking stalking that occurs within a relational context.VictimsOne of the questions surrounding gender differences in stalking research is whether women are more likely to be victims of stalking than men. Statistics clearly indicate that the majority of stalking cases often follows the rejection of an intimate relationship (Baum et al., 2009 Spitzberg Cupach, 2007 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998). Historically, intimate aggression (e.g., domestic violence, acquaintance rape) has been perceived as synonymous with violence against women because it was believed that the majority of intimate aggression targeted women. However, this belief that victims of intimate aggression are disprop ortionately female has been controversial (see Archer, 2000). Likewise, we find that the assertion that stalking victims are predominantly women is not without its controversy.In the first US national study of stalking victimization, Tjaden and Thoennes (1998) reported that 8% of women and 1.1% of men qualify qualified as stalking victims when the definition was limited to those who are were extremely afraid. The victimization rate climbs climbed to 13% of women and 2.2% of men when somewhat afraid is was used. Thus, a gender difference was still quite homely when fear was a criterion. In contrast, the British Crime Survey (Budd Mattinson, 2000), which did not require any experiences of fear, reported that 4% of women and 1.7% of men were victims of persistent and unwanted attention. In a more recent US national survey, Baum et al. (2009) found that more stalking victims were women than men when using the legal definition that includes victim fear. In contrast, no gender differenc e emerged in harassment victimization, which does not include the fear requirement. Further, all of these studies show that women are more likely to be stalked by a prior intimate than men, who are equally likely to be stalked by acquaintances or intimates.When focusing on unwanted pursuits, which can include stalking, in the relational contextS studies examining unwanted pursuit have to grapple with definitional issues as well as issues of sample. Studies of unwanted pursuit and ORI are primarily conducted among American college students and have often found few or small gender differences in rates of unwanted pursuit victimization. Among US college students, women and men who rejected a romantic relationship did not differ in their reports of experiencing unwanted pursuit behaviors, such as following and threats of physical assault (e.g., Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Phillips et al., 2004 Sinclair Frieze, 2000 Spitzberg, Nicastro, Cousins, 1998). When differences are foun d, they may be minimal.Overall, Spitzberg et al.s (2010) latest meta-analysis of US college students who experienced persistent pursuit found that women were 55% more likely to have been pursued than men. Comparing these statistics with national statistics which find women 3-7 times more likely to be stalked, a difference of .55 seems minimal. Clearly how one concludes whether someone is a victim of stalking depends not only on how one asks the question (requiring fear or not) but who one is asking (college sample vs. national sample). Yet, it seems safe to conclude that women do outnumber men when it comes to victimization rates.To Fear or Not to FearWhere consistent gender differences have been found is that women are more likely to view unwanted pursuit as threatening (Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Spitzberg et al., 2010). The inclusion of fear appears to decrease prevalence rates for men, as men are less likely to report fear than are women (Bjerregaard, 2000 Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 D avis, Ace, Andra, 2000 Emerson et al., 1998 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a). This difference in reports of fear could be due to men actually not feeling afraid, only reporting they are not afraid, or experiencing less severe stalking behavior. It is difficult to parse the true reason. In general, men appear less willing to report fear due to socially desirable responding (Sutton Farrall, 2005) and men discount their risk of victimization (Stanko Hobdell, 1993). Also, Mmany male victims of stalking do not perceive any threat from their pursuers and therefore do not identify their experience as stalking (Tjaden, Thoennes, Allison, 2000 Sheridan, et al., 2002). Male victims of interpersonal violence report they are more likely to react with laughter than are women (Romito Grassi, 2007) and men discount their risk of victimization (Stanko Hobdell, 1993). Likewise, Emerson, Ferris, and Gardners (1998) US community sample of victims revealed that men felt less vulnerable and threatened tha n did women. Men who do seek protection from their ex-girlfriends may experience informal social sanctions (Hall, 1998) and be treated with contempt or laughter by legal professionals (Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2001). Accordingly, some have argued that the laws emphasis on fear reduces male prevalence rates (Tjaden et al., 2000) and may lead people to discount male victims who may actually need assistance from law enforcement (Baum et. al, 2009 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998).Emphasizing fear in stalking definitions may also affect womens reporting of intimate partner stalking. Stalking targeting women is primarily perpetrated by intimates (Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a), but women are paradoxically more afraid of strangers (Pain, 1996). For example, Dietz and Martin (2007) found that women were more afraid of strangers than of boyfriends. Also, Dunn (1999) demonstrated how a group of sorority women reported that they would feel anxious if a man suddenly showed up at their doorstep, but found it ro mantic and flattering if he showed up with flowers especially when he was . The women also felt more flattered byan ex-partner, s than byrather than a casual dates engaging in the same behaviors. Women may thus be more likely than men to minimize unwanted pursuit when it can be interpreted as romantic (Dunn, 1999 Emerson et al., 1998 Lee, 1998), while men may be more dismissive in general. Frequency counts of stalking thus may not tell the whole story of stalking victimization. For example, general population samples in the UK and the US (Budd Mattinson, 2000 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a) find that women are victims of intimate partner stalking, while men are equally likely to be stalked by partners and acquaintances (exception Purcell et al.s, 2001 Australian clinical sample) so while it is true that intimate partner stalking is the most prevalent type, there are somewhat differential experiences for women and men.Consequences CopingEven if it is the case that men and women may be tar geted in equal numbers by unwanted pursuit behaviors (Bjerregaard, 2000 Haugaard Seri, 2004 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Spitzberg et al., 1998), there are differences in the impact of that unwanted attention. Stalking victims report a wide range of negative consequences, including psychological health problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, PTSD symptomotology), physical health problems (e.g., disturbances in appetite and sleep, headaches, nausea, and damage from the perpetrator), economic losses (e.g., spending money on protective efforts, lost wages, and expenses), and social losses (e.g., losing touch with friends, getting unlisted phone numbers, reducing social activities) (see Bjerregaard, 2000 Centers for Disease Control, 2003 Davis et al., 2002 Dressing, Kuehner, Gass, 2005 Kamphuis Emmelkamp, 2001 Path Mullen, 1997 Sheridan, Davies, Boon, 2001). Even if it is the case that men and women may be targeted in equal numbers by unwanted pursuit behaviors (Bjerregaard, 20 00 Haugaard Seri, 2004 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Spitzberg et al., 1998), there are differences in the impact of that unwanted attention. Of these consequences, Davis et al. (2000) found that In addition to finding that female stalking victims had a higher risk of physical and mental health problems than male victims. Further,, once again highlighting the importance of fear, Davis et al. (2000) found that greater fear was associated with greater health problems for women, but not for men. Also, Bjerregaard (2000) found that female victims of stalking were more likely to have been physically harmed by their stalker than were male victims, and reported greater impact on their emotional health. It may seem as if one could draw the conclusion that women suffer greater health consequences (Jordan, 2009), but this conclusion is not without its exceptions (Pimlott-Kubiak Cortina, 2003 Wigman, 2009) Stalking is also comorbid with physical, sexual, and psychological abuse female stalking victims experience (Brewster, 2003 Coleman, 1997 Jordan, Wilcox, Pritchard, 2007 Logan, Leukefeld, Walker, 2000 Mechanic, Uhlmansick, Weaver, Resick, 2000 Spitzberg Rhea, 1999 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998). Among battered women, Mechanic and colleagues (Mechanic et al., 2000 Mechanic et al., 2002) have found that experiencing stalking contributes to higher levels of depression, fear, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than physical abuse alone.TRANSITION NEEDED. Stalking victims take a variety of steps to protect themselves, including confronting the stalker (or having a third party do so), changing their home, school, or workplace, or seeking a protection order (Path Mullen, 1997 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a). Some of the most common coping tactics for stalking victims involve a passive strategy, with tactics like ignoring or otherwise minimizing the problem (college students, Amar Alexy, 2010, Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Fremouw et al., 1997 Jason, Reichler, Easton, Neal, Wilson, 1984, self-identified victims in a Dutch community Kamphpuis, Emmelkamp, Bartak, 2003). Women are more likely than men to seek help in general. In particular, women are more likely than men to seek counseling and to file a protection order (Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a), and to take more security precautions, including avoiding people or places (Budd Mattinson, 2000), and to confide in a close friend or family member for help (Spitzberg et al., 1998). In their study on unwanted pursuit in US college students, Cupach and Spitzberg (2000) found that women reported more interaction (e.g., yelled at the person), and protection (e.g., called the police), and less retaliation (e.g., threatened physical harm) than men. Both genders coped using evasion (e.g., ignored them). However, while men and women had different help-seeking patterns, the differences themselves were very small (Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Spitzberg, 2002).In sum, gender differences emerge in more severe experiences, wh ich usually involve a legally-defined fearful victim found in general population samples and those drawn from clinical or forensic populations (Baum, Catalano, Rand, Rose, 2009 Bjerregaard, 2000 Sheridan, Gillett, Davies, 2002 vs. Sheridan, Davies, Boon, 2001 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998). In contrast, studies employing college student samples that use a non-fear based definition often do not find such gender differences (Cupach Spitzberg, 1998, 2000 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Phillips et al., 2004 Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2002). Meta-analyses have shown that clinical and forensic samples do have higher prevalence rates than student or community samples clinical and forensic samples also reveal a stronger pattern of male perpetrators and female victims (Spitzberg, 2002 Spitzberg Cupach, 2007 Spitzberg, Cupach, Ciceraro, 2010). We may conclude that there are meaningful gender differences in the experience of stalking, but some of these differences may be minimal (Spitzberg et al., 2010).PerpetratorsWhen it comes to examining gender differences in stalking perpetration, we are confronted with some of the same issues. It makes a difference whether we are examining stalking or, more broadly, unwanted pursuit behaviors. It also matters which sample is being examined. However, gender differences in rates of perpetration seem easier to come by. The issue of whether men stalk more than women is subject to one of the problems that drive questions of victimization which samples we study. The issue of whether stalking is operationalized using the requirement that victims feel fear is trickier. We cant use the same standard with perpetrators, who may not be able or willing to convey whether their victim was fearful. While we may assume that aggressive stalking behaviors like vandalism, threats, and physical harm are more severe than showing up unexpectedly or repeated phone calls, the meaning and impact of these behaviors may be similar. Depending upon the context of the behavior, even excessive declarations of love may lead to probable cause for fear (Emerson et al. 1998). However, as with victimization studies, males and females in some college student samples report no gender differences in engaging in unwanted pursuit behaviors toward an intimate partner (Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Dutton Winstead, 2006 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Sinclair Frieze, 2000). For example, Baum et al.s (2009) found in the data from a US national US survey revealed that approximately 60% of stalkers were male, 28% were female, and the rest were unable to be identified by their victim. Overall, Spitzberg and Cupachs (2003) meta-analysis found that males make up 82% of stalkers, while females represent 18% of stalkers. HoweverIn sum, the most recent meta-analysis of stalking and unwanted pursuit found that 23.90% of men have perpetrated stalking behavior, while compared to 11.92% of women did so (Spitzberg Cupach, 2010).However, as with victimization stud ies, some college student surveys reveal no gender differences in engaging in unwanted pursuit behaviors toward an intimate partner (Cupach Spitzberg, 2000 Dutton Winstead, 2006 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Sinclair Frieze, 2000). College students frequently report engaging in unwanted pursuit behaviors, with up to 99% doing at least one (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Sinclair Frieze, 2000). Between 30 and 36% of Davis et al.s (2000) US college student sample reported engaging in one to five acts, and 7 to 10% reported six or more. The most frequent behaviors are various forms of unwanted communication and showing up at work/home/school. Aggressive pursuit behaviors are more infrequent (Davis et al., 2000 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000). In general, unwanted pursuit perpetration in college students involves similar numbers of male and female perpetrators, while stalking among general or clinical populations is predominantly perpetrated by men (Allen, Swan, Rag havan, 2009 Baum et al., 2009 Budd Mattinson, 2000 Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a).This pattern parallels the findings regarding dating and domestic violence perpetration. Like the pattern between unwanted pursuit and stalking, dating violence and domestic violence involve similar behaviors with differing prevalence rates, predictors of perpetration, and consequences for women and men (Archer, 2000 Bookwala, Frieze, Smith, Ryan, 1992). In this sense, less severe levels of unwanted pursuit or harassment may mirror Johnsons (1995) category of common couple violence, while more severe levels of stalking equal intimate terrorism (Johnson Ferraro, 2000). The debate of whether gender shapes the experience of IPV leads to research comparing the quantity of male and female victims and perpetrators, but also whether experiences are qualitatively different. In other words, are there gender differences in who perpetrators stalk their choice of stalking behaviors , and their motivations?Types of BehaviorsThere is some evidence that women and men engage in slightly different individual stalking behaviors. In both forensic and college student samples in the US and Australia, men are more likely to make in-person contact (e.g., approach behavior Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Sinclair Frieze, 2000), to follow their victims or loiter (Purcell et al., 2001 Purcell et al., 2010), and to inflict property damage (Purcell et al., 2010). Women, on the other hand, are more likely to engage in behaviors that do not confront the target face-to-face, such as making unwanted calls or leaving unwanted phone messages (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000 Purcell et al., 2001 Purcell et al., 2010), spreading rumors, or employing others in harassing the victim (Purcell et al., 2010). These patterns are not universal, however, as Dutton and Winstead (2006)s US college student sample found that women reported more monitoring and physically hurting their tar gets than men.In terms of cyberstalking behaviors,. Burke, Wallen, Vail-Smith, and Knox (2011) found that US college student men were more likely than women to report experiencing and engaging in the use of spyware, photos, and cameras to monitor and pursue their partner (e.g., using GPS devices, web cams, and spyware to monitor their partner). In contrast, college student women were more likely to report excessive communication and checking behaviors (e.g., checking cell phone and e-mail histories, making excessive phone calls and e-mails, checking social networking sites, and using their partners passwords).. However, in a study on pursuit behaviors perpetrated on Facebook, Lyndon, Bonds-Raacke, and Cratty (in press) found no gender differences in US college students in the three types of behaviors people perpetrated on Facebook to harass their ex-partner covert provocation (20-54% e.g., post poetry or lyrics in status updates to taunt ex-partner), venting (7-11% e.g., write inapp ropriate or mean things about ex-partner on Facebook), and public harassment (3-10% e.g., create a false Facebook profile of ex-partner). Thus far the ambiguity about whether gender differences exist in cyberpursuit appears to mirror the findings regarding unwanted pursuit behaviors for women and men, but we need more research on using technology to stalkcyberstalking, especially with perpetrators.One of the most pressing questions regarding stalking is when it might escalate into physically violent behaviors. Most stalkers, however, are not violent (Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2004 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a) half of all stalking cases involve a threat and just under a third of all stalking cases involve physical violence. Both male and female stalkers are more likely to be violent if they are an ex-intimate, are younger than 30 years of age, have less than a high school education, and have made prior threats (Rosenfeld Harmon, 2002). Other predictors of stalking-related violence include prior criminal convictions (Mullen et al., 1999 Palrea, Zona, Lane, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 1999). Most stalkers, however, are not violent (Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2004 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a) half of all stalking cases involve a threat and just under a third of all stalking cases involve physical violence.Evidence is mixed as to whether there are gender differences in those who are likely to become violent.Some research using US college student samples suggest that female unwanted pursuit perpetrators of unwanted pursuit engage in more mild aggressive stalking behaviors than men (Dutton Winstead, 2006 Williams Frieze, 2005). However, other college student samples reveal no gender differences in perpetration of stalking violence (Haugaard Seri, 2004 Sinclair Frieze, 2002). StillIn contrast, others find that men are more likely than women to threaten their victims (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000) and to escalate from threats to physical assaults, as reported in both Austr alian forensic samples (Purcell et al., 2001) and meta-analyses (Spitzberg Cupach, 2007). Former romantic partnersEx-intimate stalkers, who are mostly male, are the most violent compared to other categories of stalkers, a pattern that is consistent across culture and sample type (McEwan, Mullen, MacKenzie, Ogloff, 2009 Meloy, Davis, Lovette, 2001 Mohandie, Meloy, McGowan, Williams, 2006 Palrea, Zona, Lane, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 1999 Sheridan, Blaauw, Davies, 2003 Sheridan Davies, 2001). Given that men are more likely to stalk ex-intimate partners than women (Spitzberg Cupach, 2007 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998), it seems that we should find more male-perpetrated stalking violence.However, other college student samples and forensic samples reveal no gender differences in perpetration of stalking violence (Haugaard Seri, 2004 Sinclair Frieze, 2002). HoweverFor example, current evidence with forensic samples shows no gender differences in actual stalking cases regarding stalker le thality (Mullen et al., 1999 Purcell et al., 2001 Rosenfeld Lewis, 2005). Specifically, both male and female stalkers can turn violent if they are an ex-intimate, are younger than 30 years of age, have less than a high school education, and have made prior threats (Rosenfeld Harmon, 2002). Evidently, more research is needed to sort out whether gender is a useful predictor of extreme stalking and violence.Motivations and ViolenceWhile there are some differences in how men and women pursue, there also may be some differences in their motivations for doing so. Victims in general population studies often attribute the stalkers motivation to attempts to keep them in a relationship, as well as a desire to control the them (Budd Mattinson, 2000 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a). Mullen and colleagues (1999) have classified their samples of clinical and forensic stalkers in Australia into five motivation groups rejected, intimacy-seeker, incompetent suitor, resentful, and predatory types, but hav e not found consistent gender differences between the groups. Stalking behaviors appear to be motivated most commonly by intimacy (e.g., a desire for reconciliation and feelings of love), with the second most common motive being aggression retaliation (e.g., a desire for revenge Spitzberg Cupach, 2007). In fact, perpetrators often report both motives for reconciliation of a relationship and for revenge (Mullen, Path, Purcell, Stuart, 1999 Spitzberg Cupach, 2007). These Cclinical/forensic rejected stalkers who are motivated by a mix of reconciliation and revenge needs have a higher likelihood of assaulting their victims than other motivation groups (Mullen et al., 2006).Gender differences in motivations for stalking have been noted in juvenile forensic samples. Juvenile female stalkers more likely to be motivated by bullying and retaliation whereas juvenile male stalkers were have been found to be motivated more by rejection and sexual predation (Purcell et al., 2010). In a 2001 s tudy of adult stalkers in Australia, Purcell and colleagues found that women were more likely to target professional acquaintances and less likely to target strangers than men. Nonetheless, the majority of female stalkers were still clearly motivated by the desire to establish intimacy with their target, whereas mens motivations were diverse, spreading across the five categories. Likewise, in Meloys (2003) study of 82 female stalkers from the US, Canada, and Australia, he found the female stalkers were more likely to be motivated by a desire to establish intimacy, whereas men were known to stalk to restore intimacy. Ultimately, Tthere is a large gap in stalking motivation research, particularly using non-forensic samples.Clinical/forensic rejected stalkers who are motivated by a mix of reconciliation and revenge needs have a higher likelihood of assaulting their victims than other motivation groups (Mullen et al., 2006). Both male and female stalkers are more likely to be violent if they are an ex-intimate, are younger than 30 years of age, have less than a high school education, and have made prior threats (Rosenfeld Harmon, 2002). Other predictors of stalking-related violence include prior criminal convictions (Mullen et al., 1999 Palrea, Zona, Lane, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 1999). Most stalkers, however, are not violent (Purcell, Path, Mullen, 2004 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a) half of all stalking cases involve a threat and just under a third of all stalking cases involve physical violence.Evidence is mixed as to whether there are gender differences in those who are likely to become violent. Some research using US college student samples suggest that female unwanted pursuit perpetrators engage in more mild aggressive stalking behaviors (Dutton Winstead, 2006 Williams Frieze, 2005). However, other college student samples reveal no gender differences in perpetration of stalking violence (Haugaard Seri, 2004 Sinclair Frieze, 2002). Still others find that men are more likely than women to threaten their victims (Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al., 2000) and to escalate from threats to physical assaults, as reported in both Australian forensic samples (Purcell et al., 2001) and meta-analyses (Spitzberg Cupach, 2007). Former romantic partners are the most violent compared to other categories of stalkers, a pattern that is consistent across culture and sample type (McEwan, Mullen, MacKenzie, Ogloff, 2009 Meloy, Davis, Lovette, 2001 Mohandie, Meloy, McGowan, Williams, 2006 Palrea, Zona, Lane, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 1999 Sheridan, Blaauw, Davies, 2003 Sheridan Davies, 2001). Given that men are more likely to stalk ex-intimate partners than women (Spitzberg Cupach, 2007 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998), it seems that we should find more male-perpetrated stalking violence. However, current evidence with forensic samples shows no gender differences in actual stalking cases regarding stalker lethality (Mullen et al., 1999 Purcell et al., 2001 Rosenfe ld Lewis, 2005).Single surveys of Ccollege student samples ofabout unwanted pursuit and obsessive relational intrusion are the least likely to find fewgender differences in perpetration rates. However, meta-analyses and US and UK general population studies find that men are more likely to be stalking perpetrators than women, regardless of the victims gender (Baum et al., 2009 Budd Mattinson, 2000 Spitzberg, 2002 Tjaden Thoennes, 1998a).While the size of this gender difference varies, it is consistent across methodologies (Spitzberg Cupach, 2003). There are some gender differences in the types of stalking and cyberstalking perpetrationbehaviors e.g., men being more direct and women more indirect and in pursuers motives women being predominantly motivated by intimacy-seeking and men having a broader array of motives. However, we need more research on perpetration to better understand if gender is an important predictor to consider, especially with regard to the likelihood of es calation. with a variety of samples and with better means of differentiating unwanted pursuit from stalking.Perceptions of stalkingAs attention to the problem of stalking has increased, so has public opinion been shaped. However, there is not a true consensus in these opinions. Rather, people vary in how much they understand about stalking. It can be unclear when the line between normal relational pursuit and stalking is crossed (Dunn, 1999 Emerson et al., 1998 Lee, 1998 Sinclair Frieze, 2000, 2005). Perceptions can also diverge regarding multiple issues including 1) which behaviors qualify as stalking, 2) how many behavior are enough to represent a course of conduct, 3) is stalking really serious, 4) what perpetrator intent may have been, 5) whether and how we should incorporate victim fear levels to judge stalking severity, and 6) what is real stalking (e.g., stranger vs. acquaintance stalking). Within each of these issues, gender may influence the perceptions people hold, both l ay persons and legal decision-makers.Stalking in the Eye of the Beholder The Role of Perceiver GenderThe literature is still mixed as to whether men and women differ in judgments to use a label of stalking. Some researchers report that men and women do not differ in terms of which behaviors qualify as stalking (e.g., Kinkade, Burns, Fuentes, 2005 Phillips et al., 2004, in Experiment 1 Sheridan Davies, 2001 Sheridan, Davies, Boon, 2001 Sheridan et al., 2002 Sheridan, Gillet, Davies, Blaauw, Patel, 2003). Others have found

The Great Gatsby: Analysis of Deception

The Great Gatsby Analysis of falsehoodThere are few American novels that are honest and charm about human nature as Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby. At the revolve about of the novel, we discover the deep, dark secret of mankind conjury. The people of East and double-u Egg use one a nonher for their own benefits and have no concern of the affect their actions may have on the people most them. As notch Carraway narrates, we decease a look into the lives of the wealthy which is just now lavish society surrounded by a wall of lies and deception. face inside this wall, e precisething seems honely in place however, their money cannot buy them joy and this is the reason for individually characters use of deception.There is deception everywhere in this novel and not even the married are saved from it. Daisy is beautiful, and travels, make her a known figure in many different circles she as well has a large bank account. tom turkey Buchanan, her save, is very fortunate to be with her and should not do anything to risk this marriage nevertheless, he is cheating on her with some one of a lesser social status. Myrtle Wilson, turkey cocks mistress, lives with her husband in the middle of East and West Egg The only construction in sight was a small block of yellow brick posing on the edge of the waste land the third was a garageRepairs. GEORGE B. WILSON ( 29 ). It is terrible that Mr. Wilson does not even realize that his wife is carrying on an affair with another man. She smiled slowly and, walking through her husband as if he were a ghost, shook hands with tomcat, looking him flush in the eye (29). Daisy has a high reputation and in found to pull through that reputation, she makes sure to do nothing that would embarrass her They moved with a ready crowd, all of them young and rich and wild, but she came out absolutely perfect (82). Tom has used Daisy for her social standing and her wealth Tom would be cast out of the elite world if he left Daisy, reservation that option not even considerable. Deception is part of human nature, and, unfortunately, no on can escape from it.Even though Tom is victimization Daisy, Daisy in any case uses Tom, but for different reasons. Nick unveils the fact that Daisy does not necessity Tom anything except his ability to provide her with the emotional stability that she needs. It becomes pass away throughout the course of the story that Daisy and Gatsby loved each other very deeply however, when Gatsby went away to war, Daisy found and married Tom. Daisy had hidden her love for Gatsby from Tom and everyone who surrounded her thus, when Gatsby returned to tell her that he loved her, she did not know how to defend to the situation because she had been hiding her love for so long. Daisy then began to see Gatsby never telling Tom what she was doing. Jordan told Nick that on the night before Tom and Daisys marriage, she Daisy was as drunk as a monkey. She had a permitter. She began to cryshe cri ed and cried (81). Daisy cried because she knew that she was not marrying Gatsbyher true love. Finally, five years later, Daisy breaks down and admits that she loves Gatsby but that she loved Tom as well. Even alone I cant say that I never loved Tom (140). Daisy used Tom as her backup so that she would never feel lonely or neglected as she did when Gatsby left for the war.Mr. Jay Gatsby has also used others for his own personal gain. Over the m that Gatsby and Nick become friends, Gatsby tells of his love for Daisy. As Daisys cousin, Nick has the power to get both of them together. Gatsby sees this possibility and has Jordan call to set up a tea in hopes of just running into Daisy. Thus Jordan calls up and tells Nick that He Gatsby wants to know if youll invite Daisy to your house some afternoon and then let him come over. He wants her to see his house and your house is right abutting door (83-4). Gatsby is using Nick in order to see Daisy, and also Jordan to ensure that this me eting will occur. Also, Gatsby takes advantage of Nicks social status to submit his own dreams I dont want to do anything out of the way he Gatsby kept saying. I want to see her right conterminous door. This was Gatsbys externalisehe wanted Daisy to see the difference between himself and NickNick is poor whereas Gatsby is wealthy and his large house looks even bigger next to Nicks smaller one. Gatsby uses Nick for Daisy, but Nick never realizes it.From Nick Carraways perspective, he tells of how the people of West and East egg exploit each others put in hopes of receiving what they want. The people around Nick all wanted to pass water some sort of feeling of comfort and were not concerned with who they index hurt in the process. The affluent recognized something that they wanted, so they used each other to get that satisfactory feeling, no concern with how temporary that happiness may be. Nicks narration reveals the degree the wealthy would go in order to receive what they de sired. Nicks truthfulness and honest character throws a shadow upon the deception of the wealthy.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

How Successful Is Rolex Marketing Essay

How Successful Is Rolex selling EssayRolex is among the top ranked sumptuousness strike outs in the wristwatch sedulousness that has created its characteristic position in the commercialize by faging only exuberant race. Rolex has been channelizeing niche profession since its initial days the main aim of the confederacy is to provide feeling seeking volume with the better wristwatches that keep back been designed with superior quality raw materials and people who have expertise in this field. The watches ar essential with highly transfixd and well-trained people who have thoroughgoing have sexledge and brain to the highest degree the wristwatch designing and manufacturing.In indian lodge to reach the reclaim target merchandise, Rolex has made a drastic changed in its merchandising schema by moving from traditional mediums much(prenominal) as Television Advertisements and advertizings in newspapers and magazines to famous person mos such as Roger Federer and events sponsorships some(prenominal) of these elements have created a new image in the merchandise. As people argon allowing to invest in those disfigurements that will enhance their relationship with their favorite(a) personalities, Rolex has capitalized on this aspect.The essential look conducted among the college students revealed that they be willing to own Rolex dishonor as it certificati hotshotrs them in rearing an companionship with their favorite star. Hence, Rolex is doing aggressive merchandising so that it atomic number 50 capture the attention of its target market, enhance its distinctive image worldwide and keep on making valuable character in the wristwatch industry. understructureIn luxury wristwatches industry, Rolex is the leading ca-ca and it has become a status symbol worldwide. Since Rolex has been meeting the demands of its clients for so legion(predicate) years and has become among the top hundred defacements of the world, it is of grea t interest to do the secret of the success of Rolex. One of the important aspects of each shit is its market schema because it gives it a sense of direction closely the efforts that need to be d iodine so that it underside capture the attention of its target market and convey positive heart to its customers (Key Note, 2011).Research Objectives and QuestionsThe main research objectives of this make argonTo gather information close top brands of wristwatch industry.To call the selling activities conducted by Rolex to attract the customers.To evaluate the image held by the customers about Rolex brand.In score to read the current trade dodge busy by Rolex, following research questions will be addressed to pass on the objectives of the studywhy is Rolex such a successful brand?What is the selling st rovegy followed by Rolex to maintain its position in the market?Why atomic number 18 the customers of Rolex satisfied with its wristwatches?Importance of the StudyThe stud y will back up in appreciation the importance of merchandise outline in creating right positioning in the market. When the market strategies of top ranked brands are examine, an in-depth recognizeing about the relevant topic stool be developed. Rolexs current marketing strategy will assist in analyzing the success of Rolex in such dynamic and competitive wristwatch industry.Limitations of the StudyThe scope of the research is check as there are both time and resource constraints. The research is exploratory in nature and it is exemplifyd of questionnaire- prospect. The questionnaire has been designed in consensus with the previous recreate done by some authors as the questions are designed in accordance with the variables identified to be studied for the research purpose which is discussed in the Literature Review section. The availability of pure study of the subject was some other constraint as the researcher is inexperienced and may lack accepted skills which jakes affect the research paper.Literature ReviewBrief Introduction of RolexWhenever a customer wears Rolex watch, it enhances the persons reputation which makes a statement that the person has a great taste of style and fashion (Gautschi, 2005). Since Rolex watches are designed alone for upper class, only selected group of people can enjoy the prestige of owning the brand. Rolex has been in the market since 1995 and it is has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. It has employed more than intravenous feeding thousand watchmakers in about one hundred countries (Mulier, 2010).Rolex was the first brand to introduce waterproof watch in the year 1926. All of the watches are designed with fine quality materials and everything is done in detail so that there are no defects in the final products (Brandz, 2010). In order to build a successful brand in the market, it is important for the companies to tenseness on development of realistic and well-designed marketing strategy that will suppor t them in achieving their desired objectives (Wansink, 2003). Likewise, brand equity, brand image and marketing strategy are the main areas of studying a brand as they help in determining the factors that influence the customers to make a purchasing purpose (Saha, 2012).Marketing StrategyThe marketing strategy is one of the appoint elements of every business plan because the mediums that can be used to reach the target market have to be selected carefully. It is important for an organization to design its marketing strategy on the basis of two most important factors i.e. who is macrocosm targeted (target market profile) and which mediums will be applicable for communicating right message about the brand (Keller, 2008). Like any business plan, marketing strategy has a set of objectives that a bon ton wants to achieve for its survival in the market the key to developing right position in the market is to develop a set of goals on the basis of critical factors which will also help a company to monitor the effectiveness of its marketing strategy (Rao, Agrawal Dahlhoff, 2004).A good marketing strategy is one that is developed with the consensus of the management team of a company and its employees so that there are fewer chances that any important point is overlooked (World Watch Report, 2012). In order to develop an effective marketing strategy, the foremost thing to deem is the target market as it will give an indication about the direction that the company should follow to achieve its goals. An ideal strategy is one that makes the best(p) use of both traditional and online marketing mediums to create, maintain and alter its position in the market (Coupland, 2005).In order to attract the customers appropriately, the best way is to design a marketing strategy that has a complete(a) blend of Above-the-line (ATL) activities and Below-the-line (BTL) activities along with Public Relations and promotional activities (Key Note, 2011). ATL activities contain o f Advertisements on Television and Radio and in newspapers and magazine all of these forms require weighted measuring stick of investment. BTL activities include brochures, leaflets, billboards, flyers, buntings and etc. the cost of these activities is comparatively less than that of ATL activities. The marketing activities of each company is reckond that is compatible with the type of product or service offering, the target audience and marketing budget (Brandz, 2010).For instance, the marketing activities of Unilever comprise of advertisements, sponsorship of events, promotional offers, billboards and celebrity endorsements. Standard Chartered uses the ATL and BTL activities for consumer segment and one to one marketing for the business segment. Hence, every organization and brand has to ensure that it designs a marketing strategy after doing careful market abstract as it has to gather information about the activities that competitors are doing, the latest trend in the market, customers changing needs, changes in business environment and modification in trade policies worldwide (Gautschi, 2005).Marketing Strategy of RolexThe two main elements of Rolex strategy are tradition and conservatism which means that it has the same product and same parley strategy for decades. The communication strategy is unique that complements the differentiation constituent of its products that has enabled the company to maintain its competitive edge in the wristwatch industry. When the brand started maturation in popularity, it kept nurturing itself and added celebrity endorsement so that the customers can develop an tie-in with the brand (Saha, 2012).One interesting fact about Rolex strategy is that it has created a mystery element around its brand which has been an appealing own for the customers (Brandz, 2010). It has been considered as a male watch for a long spot and it has started to penetrate slowly into the female wristwatch market. The backward vertical consol idation is done by the company so that future supply can be secured and there is less competition within the industry. From the study of Rolex advertisements and marketing activities such as sponsorship of events, it is evident that its marketing strategy is truly a sponsorship and celebrity endorsement strategy.There are two distinctive categories of advertisement done by Rolex i.e. celebrity endorsements and pure product campaigns. The most commonly used medium of advertisements is publishing ads in newspapers and magazines, running Television Commercials and displaying billboards. However, celebrity endorsement is done at a wider level as it helps in developing a luxury brand image. In order to record the effectiveness of Rolex marketing strategy, Brandz (2010) and Mullier (2010) conducted researches to evaluate the disturb of celebrity endorsement on the customers the survey was carried out and it was found that people demoralise Rolex because it allows the user to experienc e the sensation of being a celebrity and wearing the watch enhances the constitution of the person as it makes a person stand out from the crowd.The endorsements by celebrity also helps in getting trust of the customers as they imagine that any endorsement done by a well-known personality emphasizes that the product or service is genuine and it is worth giving so much money. Most people buy luxury goods so that they can have some similarity with their favorite personalities hence, Rolex is using this strategy to capture its customers and has been successful in increasing its market share at a faster pace (World Watch Report).In this research, the key terminologies that are studied are brand association, customer loyalty and celebrity endorsement. Brand association is the sense of belonging that the customer develops when using a particular brand, customer loyalty is the customers desire of purchasing the same brand on ingeminate basis and celebrity endorsement is using celebritie s in the advertisement to labour a brand (Keller, 2008).Research MethodologyThe nature of the research is both qualitative and quantitative as the topic is vast and there are no concrete definitions unattached for the concepts that are being studied i.e. brand association, marketing strategy, customer loyalty and celebrity endorsement. Since the human factors are being studied, it is important that after gathering sufficient theoretical knowledge, the entropy collected is analyzed properly. The data is collected by conducting both primary and junior-grade researches. The secondary sources of information are compiled mainly from the research journals and articles along with the books available on many online stores. The variables for the study are deduced after careful evaluation of all factors. The variables have been defined in detail so that an understanding about the purpose of research can be easily developed.The primary data is collected by conducting a small survey that comprise of fifty respondents. Online data collection method was used to reach the respondents as contacting them via email was the easiest method. The sampling method used was convenience sampling as all the respondents were college students and accessing data via online survey was the most feasible option. When the questionnaire was developed, a voyage test was done on ten respondents to determine the understanding skill of the respondents and to ensure that the respondents had no difficulty in the questionnaires.The questionnaire comprised on ten merged questions so that the respondents had to select the option that best met their opinion. The main aim of this survey was to identify the image of Rolex in young people and also to determine the meaning of brand association in this market. Although the brand is considered to be a luxury brand but it is vital to get the viewpoint of the customers to understand the factors that led to the development of such image. The questions re volved around the key concepts i.e. brand association, customer loyalty and celebrity endorsement. Other factors that can impact the marketing strategy were studied to identify the extent to which they can have impact on the customers such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities, honest practices, environmental friendly policies and business operations, Public Relations and many more.Since the receipt rate is slow in online data collection method, the entire data was collected in ten days. When some of the respondents gave half-filled questionnaires, they were asked to fill them again and crouch a completely filled questionnaire. Some interviews were also planned with Rolex marketing people but due to some important project, interview sessions were not conducted otherwise, the information would have been more au whereforetic and up-to-date. Once the data was collected, it was then entered in the excel sheet which was later used for in-depth analysis.When data analysis was done, undue care was devoted to the tools used for analysis. Since the main purpose was to understand Rolex association in customers minds, the analysis was kept simple as most of the data is presented in descriptive statistics i.e. frequency, percentage, means and etc. so that readers can easily understand the findings of the research. The main problems encountered during the research were slow response rate and cancellation of interviews with Rolexs marketing department people.FindingsThe data collected from primary and secondary researches showed that the luxury brands in the wristwatch industry are Rolex, Omega, Dior, Cartier, Tag Heuer and Swatch. Majority of the people ranked Rolex and Cartier as the best luxury brands that have high quality and give the users a sense of pride for owning the watch of leading brands. The key factor that influenced in creation of such perception was the celebrity endorsement. to a greater extent than 80% of the respondents that they get at tracted those advertisements that have their favorite personalities or celebrities as they know that the person will tell the truth about the brand.Almost 70% of the respondents agreed that they buy a brand because they want to develop an association with their favorite star and want to share something similar so that they can enjoy the feeling of belongingness with their aspiring personality. The respondents agreed that Rolex is a luxury brand and they can only recall those ads that had some celebrity in them as it is easier to recall a brand in this way. Only 60% of the respondents were sensitive of CSR activities and sponsored events organized by Rolex it shows that the celebrity endorsement strategy works best for Rolex customers.From the primary research, it was found that only 10% had a Rolex watch which was given to them as a gift remaining 90% agreed that the terms of Rolex watches is high and only few people can afford to buy them. Even when such luxury brand watches are bought, they need to be handled with care because slight negligence can cause huge amount of repairing cost. The respondents believe that there should be a separate line of watches for those people who are looking for premium quality watches but at cheap rates.ConclusionRolex is a luxury brand that can be bought by only selected group of people the company has clarity about its target market and has designed its marketing strategy in accordance with the market requirements. The current marketing strategy used by Rolex comprises of celebrity endorsement and sponsoring of events. Majority of the advertisements are placed in magazines and newspapers of elite class so that they can be informed about the watches. When new watch is introduced by the company, advertisements are run on Television so that awareness about the product can be created.Rolex has created distinctive image in the market by portraying itself as the luxurious brand that is worn by celebrities. Everyone who wants to develop an association with any of the favorite personalities is buying and using Rolex watches. Hence, the marketing strategy used by Rolex has helped it in achieving its set goals of marketing strategy and it has positioned itself distinctively from its competitors.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Islamic Art in the Western World | Essay

Moslem Art in the westbound World examineIs in that respect a place for Muslim Art in the western United Statesward Domicile?IntroductionWhat is Islamic Art?Islamic dodge does non copy nature only when conveys what it represents.Islamic art is a mirror of a culture and its gentle view. Islamic art is a vivacious and distinctive form of Art. Un comparable Christian art, Islamic art is non constrained to unearthly work, solely includes artistic traditions in the Muslim culture.Beca utilization of the exact ruling against drawings of human or animals which might result in apotheosis worship, Islamic art developed a distinctive character makes habit of primary forms, geometricalal arabesque, floral and c totallyigraphic.Muslim art has reflected this balanced, harmonious domain of a function view.Through its brilliant use of colour and balance, Islamic art frames an warm visual impact.In Islamic art, troubleting and sculpture be not thought of as the finest forms o f art. Crafts and decorative arts are regarded as having sound art status. Books, on the other hand are a major(ip) art form and Writing has a high status in Islam as writing is considered signifi sewert decoration for objects and buildings.Islamic Art seeks to deck the meaning and essence of things, rather than just their physical form. It focuses on the weird representation of objects and beings and not their physical qualities.How is geometry seen to be spiritual?Because circles choose no end they are unbounded and so they remind Muslims that Allah is infinite. Complex geometric designs create the musical noteing of un-ending repetition this helps the person get an idea of the infinite nature of Allah.Repeating patterns also indicate that in the small you can find the infinite, a single element of the pattern implies the infinite total.The use of patterns is part of the focusing Islamic art represents nature and objects.Repeated geometric pattern much use plant motifs, th ere are called Arabesque. Arabic lettering is also common.Art It is one of the purest and most significant forms of human communication. Where language often fails us, art can cross divide what we sometimes erect due to differences in race, ethnicity, organized religion and culture. Specifically, Islamic art, perhaps more than than any other, presents a beautiful mirror of a culture and its world view. More than being just representative of a singular religion (as is often the case with Christian art), Islamic art deepens collar nearly Muslim culture, at large.It is for this reason that Islamic art should not totally be tolerated when found in a western domicile, it should be back up and celebrated as a mechanism for the west to build a new respectful, productive and healing relationship with the East.On September 11, 2001, the west was devastated by a series of coordinated suicide terrorists attacks organized by an Islamist fundamentalist group called Al- Qaida.After getting over the initial shock, pain and repulsion of this incalculable loss, the west was left with one profound imagination absolute confusion. We, in the watt, simply had little understanding, not only of the motive for the terrorist attack, but also of Islamic beliefs systems and principles, in general. And it is not a criticism, but simply an observation to note that the profoundly individualist mindset of the West, specially America, had left us very isolated and without much understanding of global, philosophical, religious and cultural principles which differed from ours.It is now almost a decade after the horror of September 11, 2001, and although the West is still much insulated and lacks the full understanding of Islam which is so critical to secure a more counterinsurgencyful global environment, we crap made significant strides. The attack was not only a mention of great suffering in the West, but also a energize up call to remind us of our insularity and the fact that there is a long global community out there of which we are only a small part. And, Islamic artists have made huge contributions to furthering the understanding of Islamic culture and religion.Some may view speech Islamic art into ones home as inviting argument and conflict. Narrow tending(p) people may view Islam as the enemy of the West. However more and more Westerners are coming to the understanding that Islam is not the enemy of the West, but rather a potential partner and friend.Art has been a mesomorphic tool in aiding the West to come to this conclusion. Through art of all varieties, Westerners are able to learn close not only the Islamic which may differ from many of ours, but also most the areas where we have something in common.There are so many contemporary Islamic arts and ways to incorporate it in to a Western home. Of course, the spry thought one has when the word art is mentioned, is probably visual art. Painters equal Ali Omar Ermes, an Islamic artist based i n the United Kingdom, introduce Western eyes to the beauty of Arabic lettering. Ermes work is significant in its exploration of the beauty of the written word or symbol. Writing, in the Islamic tradition, is highly regarded for its aesthetic beauty, and often utilized in architecture for its decorative effects, in addition to its simple meaning. Noura Sadaka, a Dubai-based talent, paints, draws and creates unique wooden and metal sculptures through which she tries to communicate the many ambiguities and struggles of being a woman caught between both Western and Islamic identities. Noura is typical of many contemporary Arabic artists in this way. So many Islamic creators have shed new understanding about the ways in which many of the Islamic community feel great ties, love and respect for their peers in the West. Contrary to initial beliefs about Islam being the Wests enemy, such artists bring to light a much more complex and subtle truth about the relationship between Islamic peopl es and their Western counterparts.Visual art is definitely not the only way to bring Islamic creativity into ones abode. We may not normally imply of magazines, television and the internet as sources of fine art so often it is full of mindless content that could not be qualified as creative, by any stretch of the imagination. However, television shows like PBSs ART 21, magazines like Brown Book and a variety of modern websites are exposing the West to Islamic artists whose work not only delights the senses it also educates and helps expound understanding. eventide the HBO series, Def Poetry Jam, did much to change stereotypes of Islam, by showcasing young, Islamic slam poets, in particular in the early years which followed the terrorist attacks.It is clear that Islamic art has an internal function in furthering human understanding and connection. It is a bridge to create a dialogue when the traditional means are inadequate to tell the subtle complexity of thoughts, emotions an d ideas which drive us. By exploring the meaning an essence of things beyond their physical form, Islamic artists communicate sometimes unique, sometimes universal ideas about the spiritual questions with which all human beings grapple, regardless of their particular faith. For these reasons and more, Islamic art can hold a vital place in the condition of a Western home expanding dialogue and understanding and, ultimately, promoting more peace and tolerance.

Problems of global waste

Problems of international flubThe caring for and instruction of spheric louse up is a global concern for the Earth as the race of Earth grows, and places where forsake is deposited becomes a problem. Waste of various kinds is a danger to human wellness, wildlife preservation, and the environs in a broad range of aspects including how take affects water supplies, soil contamination, and hazardous environments that remain or become uninhabitable. As the human population grows, so does role, and with that consumption huge amounts of swash argon body-builded. concerning the management and the future of how waste is handled locally and globally, as it is a global problem non near local. How people and wildlife toilet cope with or without a world filled with hazardous material left over from various human activities caused from their disposal of waste. municipal solid waste of or so human households affect how we live and how we affect the environment. How medical waste t hat is thrown and twisted in places where it may come into contact with the human population and how it clear spread affection. How hazardous waste that is perceived by the public as the most mightfulially dangerous waste, thatt prove to be ignominious if left untreated in populated atomic number 18as . Is the future of waste management that of recycling or turning waste into usable energy such(prenominal) as electricity and opposite powered devices.Waste problems do not only affect local environments but the global environments as a whole. Unfortunately when waste is put into landfills the waste does not disappear just because the human eye net no longer see it does not mean the earth and global habitats dont feel the consequences. There ar numerous kinds of waste that effect the world. they are classified by their physical, chemical and biologic characteristics of their compounds . potent waste materials can contain less than 70% water. Solid waste can be materials a s household garbage, industrial wastes, digging wastes, and oilfield wastes. Liquid wastes contain less than 1% solids. Liquid waste can contain high concentrations of salts and metals. goo is whats in between liquid and solid. Sludge is usually made up of 3% and 25% solids, everything else is water fade away materials. Landfills affect pollution levels of the environment the contamination of groundwater and aquifers that are used for consumption by humans and animals the leakage of waste and soil contamination methane burn out caused by decaying organic wastes methane which is a greenhouse turgidness more potent and deadly than speed of light dioxide it can cause severe problems for the local environment nigh the waste site they can excessively be disease zones can cause outbreaks of certain diseases to the surrounding area and problems of annoyance and health risks such as dust, pests, bad odor, and other problems. Alternative methods can cooperate the environment such as w aste reduction and recycling incineration of waste can also minify waste problems but when waste is burned-out foul substances affect our air quality and health. When Waste is burned in incinerators It is a more expensive alternative way of disposal than landfills. In the united states the EPA reported 118.5 million tons or 57 percent of the united states marrow waste were managed in landfills. Todays incinerators are capable of destroying around 99.9% of the organic waste material that are put into the furnaces. Also this can produce a form of usable energy for Numerous thermic processes that recover energy from the burnt solid waste. waste organizations burn wastes in incinerators to produce steamer for energy and is cleaner. Garbage as plastic and other non organic substances burned in incinerators poisons water soil and the air. Areas of life that are near incinerators have objected to them because of fears of harmful pollution. There are drawbacks to the use of incinerator s but it is one of the measures that can reduce organic waste problems. In the linked states 33.5 million tons of waste or 16 percent total were combusted at high temperatures. Recycling methods are becoming more general worldwide. Recycling can also be a way to piece energy through thermal treatment from using waste as a way to use for appliances, and too select boilers to produce steam and electricity in a turbine. When items that would be waste if not recycled can be reused and prevent waste of reusable materials, lowers the need to keep making more items that would be more waste, and keeps the environment safer than use of other waste management methods like incineration and to prevent water pollution from landfills. recycling has also lower greenhouse gas that is a major concern for our planet. useful products are many items from glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics that are refurbished cleaned and gone through different checks to make sure they are safe for re-consumption. unfortunately recycling methods tend to be very expensive alternatives to traditional waste management and for this reason they are turned away for much more environmental damaging solutions. The environmental Protection Agency reported that 56 million tons or 27 percent of Americas total waste were recovered by recycling. The EPA is support recycling and that recycling in the united states has reduced the countrys total carbon emissions. Recycling has caused some controversy by critics as they often secernate that the practice is too expensive and not as effective as other methods as incineration which produces energy that is used more than the reused products that are save from recycling and how landfills are becoming more organized and more environmentally friendly than in the past. To Methods to turn waste into energy as discussed with how incinerators defecate energy are called Waste-to-energy and is becoming increasingly popular as it turns harmful was te into energy in the form of heat of electricity from the incineration of the waste materials. This form of waste management produce electricity in the form of conflagration or produce a combustible fuel in the form of ethane methanol methane and also synthetic fuels that can power various equipments. There are also some very freshly and developing technologies that produce energy from waste and other fuels without direct combustion like that of incinerators. These new forms of energy producing waste deduction have the strength to produce more electric power amount of fuel than would be by direct combustion. The converted fuel produce a higher(prenominal) combustion temperatures. A modern form of waste management is blood plasma arc gasification it uses a very high electrical energy and the fundamental temperatures created by an electrical arc gasifies. The arc converts waste into elemental gas and solid waste in a plasma converter. this method has been think to be a generato r of electricity, depending what the composition of input wastes are and to reduce the volumes of waste being sent to landfill mounds. Another method of making waste or other products into energy is gasification which converts carbon materials like coal and crude oil into carbon monoxide and hydrogen by placing the materials in a high temperature indoors a controlled setting of oxygen and steam. This forms synthesis gas and is a fuel. machinelike biologic treatment system facilities is a sorting facility that takes fretting of biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion and composting . mechanical biological treatment facilities are designed to process household wastes along with commercialised and industrial wastes.