Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Continuum: Poetry Essay

Continuum: anything that goes through a gradual transition from one condition to a diffrerent condition, without any abrupt changes or discontinuities In this poem, Curnow explains the hardness of poem. He is waiting for inspiration for his poem and he is bored about thid and wants to sleep. He explains that writing a poem is an endless cycle. He personifies moon as a symbol for himself which creates a restless mood. The poet can not rest until he finished his poem. â€Å"I am talking about myself† this sentence suggests the reader that the poet is lonely and isolated. His source for inspiration is nature in this poem and he sais â€Å"Better bare-foot it out the front† because he wants to connect directly with the nature. He can not concentrate anything because of his restless mood. â€Å"washed-out creation† and â€Å"dark-place† imageries suggest that he wants to find sth unique. â€Å"A long moment stretches, the next one is not on time. † this sentence means that the poet doesn’t notice the time had gone. Curnow used â€Å"(query)† because he want to explain his sense of questioning. The â€Å"cringing demiurge† is the creative side of the persona and he is in an inner-conflict because one side of him wants to sleep the other one wants to write a poem. At last stanza, we are not sure but we understand that he found sth like inspiration and he turns to his bed, stealthily in step. Curnow’s punctuation suggests that he is lack of control. His commas shows that he is jumping from thought to thought. Curnow’s enjambment rambling poet’s own thoughts. The poem’s structure is also explains the theme and title of th poem, â€Å"Continuum†. The poem is also composed of very long stanzas which explains the confused mind of the speaker. Allen Curnow’s â€Å"Continuum† is a poem on the continuity of poetic inspiration. The poetic source of stimulation of great poets since ages has been the landscape. The moon has been a persistent metaphor for poetic inspiration in celebrated poems like Samuel Coleridge’s â€Å"Dejection: An Ode. The poet’s quality of being a satirist is prominent here. He first asserts that the moon rolls over the roof, and falls back. This is to imply that his poetic capabilities are sinking. Subsequently, he goes on to substantiate that the moon does neither of these things, he is talking about himself. When poets generally do falter in poetic output or due to lack of inspiration, they tend to blame the external circumstances. However, Here Allen Curnow asserts that the poet himself is to be blamed; for, Poetic inspiration comes from within and not from outside. Being sleepless is not an excuse for writing a poem. Sleeplessness does not necessarily allow one to ruminate over a subject, or planet or subjective thoughts. The condition of insomnia can also be dodged conveniently by walking barefoot on the front. The speakeris then visualized as an onlooker of nature. As he stands at the porch he beholds an objective view of himself, as he discerns â€Å"across the privets/and the palms a †washed out creation†. This portion is a dark space. The poet moves to his satiric tone yet again. This dark space contains two particular clouds, one was supposed to be a source of inspiration for the poet, and the other for his adversary-the other fellow poet. Bright clouds dusted(query) by the moon, one’s mine The other’s an adversary, which may depend on the wind or something. The clouds seem to dust the moon for the poet in his quest/query for poetic stimulation. Nevertheless as one cloud functions in his favour, the other (cloud) poses as an adversary that may shadow the cloud, accompanied by the wind. Poetic brainwave or competence must not mar the other’s inspiration, for each poet has his individualistic insight that springs from within and does depend on external features. Creative Inspiration The poet gets the feeling that he has overcome his writer’s block. As creativity begins in impulses, there are gaps. The next gap is a long one, and obviously the next poetic impulse is not on time. Corresponding to the inner lack of productivity, the feet outside lack warmth as the chill of the planking underfoot rises. As the poet cringes for poetic output based on external inspiration, the night sky seems to empty all it contents down, as in an action of excreting or vomiting. The speaker then turns on his bare heel and closes the door signaling the end of his creative endeavour. This is He, the objective Author, feeding on this litter of the scenic sky and employing his poetic tools in the process. Therefore, he is aptly the cringing demiurge. â€Å"The demiurge is a concept from the Platonic, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools ofphilosophy for an artisan-like figure responsible for the fashioning and maintenance of thephysical universe. Although a fashioner, the demiurge is not quite the creator figure in the familiar monistic sense; both the demiurge itself and the material from which the demiurge fashions the universe are the product of some other being. † (Wikipedia) The poet Allen Curnow asserts that he neither is he original, nor his poetic source of insight. This is because the motivating stimuli did not spring from Him. It is objective, when it should be rather subjective. {Continuum * Allen Curnow} In the poem Continuum by Allen Curnow, he tells us about his lack of inspiration or his lack to â€Å"create†. The theme of the poem revolves around poetic inspiration, and how he is unable to get that inspiration. He uses a variety of literary devices to portray this. The title, â€Å"Continuum†, shows us that the problem he talks about, his lack of inspiration is never ending and is continuing all the time. The first stanza shows us Curnow’s unstable thoughts; â€Å"the roof falls behind†, as he is unable to compose poetry he is in a sense of rolling and falling all over the place. In the first line, the word â€Å"moon† is used as a metaphor, as a symbol for himself. As the moon is unable to shine on its own, as it depends on the sun, just like that Curnow depends on his writing to keep him going in life. The first stanza also tells you about the setting and time of the poem which is at night. The poem has no rhyme scheme, this tells us that the poet is finding it difficult to express his thoughts, and he cannot tap into the world of imagination. The last line of the first stanza; â€Å"I am talking about myself. † Also shows his frustration. In the next stanza, Curnow is seeking connection with nature to find poetic inspiration. The line, â€Å"It’s not possible to get off to sleep†, tells us that the poet is unable to sleep which shows that something is troubling him. Curnow goes out â€Å"barefoot†, to rid himself of the human material and wants to connect with nature. He stands in the porch looking at the moon and the clouds, not really conscious of either the time or the chill that he starts to feel. Curnow eventually goes back to bed having written this poem. He writes about himself as another person or thing – He says he is the moon; in the last stanza he writes as if he is describing what he did to the â€Å"the author†. Curnow walks â€Å"stealthily in step† as if half of him is afraid of what is happening to him. Summary: The author writes about his inability to sleep due to his inability to come up with material to write about (most likely a poem, could be another form of text). He therefore gets up in the dead of night when everyone is asleep and experiences a surreal world as his reality and dreams blend together in one beautiful work of poetry. It is ironic however, that when he finds nothing to write about, he writes about his inability to write.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Harley Davidson Company Essay

Situational analysis Harley Davidson, an international motorcycle company, started out as a small three man operation in 1903, by the Davidson brothers and William Harley manufacturing heavyweight motorcycles. This included financial services for the motorbikes, accessories and branded apparel. It experienced great success during both World Wars, and managed to survive the trying times of the Great Depression. After World War II, Harley Davidson brand begin to build on the image of the V-twin cylinder engine established in the 1920’s by shifting from manufacturing military bikes to recreational ones. During the 1970’s and 1980’s Japanese competition nearly destroyed the company. Competitors introduced technological advanced bikes at a lower cost due to mass production. Technological advances and economics of scale and efficiencies made competitor’s products superior in some instances. Harley responded by a re-evaluating its marketing strategy centered on a lifestyle image. This included a re-organization and brand building program, including the Harley Owners Group (HOG), Harley Davidson was able to re-capture its market share. It established these groups along with better customer service that helped it establish itself as a dominate company in the motorbike industry. It had a differentiated focus and various target markets as the environments changed. It was positioned effectively as a way of life with a sense of freedom as opposed to selling the best motorbikes. The marketing campaigns focused more on the lifestyle associated with the product and worked on its social image. The marketing team used differentiation to create more awareness of the product by reinforcing Harley from a psychological perspective as a symbol of freedom, developing and maintaining relationships. Harley Davidson South Africa was established in 1996 and has prospered due to very high annual growth rates. It succeeded as an emotionally driven brand, one that customers choose for a sense freedom, biker image or as a status symbol. It is this emotive response that Harley Davidson capitalizes on in its marketing strategy and that is re-enforced with the Harley Owners Group magazine, events and the international customer rental service. Despite the company’s success it faces some unique challenges. Currently all merchandise  is imported from the U.S.A., as a result pricing decisions are problematic relative to competitors. Harley continuously evolved its brand but lacked focus on black upcoming consumer (black diamonds) and on women initially. It will need to do some valuable market research and determine the best way forward with very careful implementation of the strategy to best target black diamonds and increase growth in this ‘untapped’, high disposable i ncome market. 1: Product Policy Product Policy is defined as â€Å"A strategic rule or rules covering how a good or service is promoted to potential consumers† (Kotler and Keller, Year!). Harley-Davidson has since grown from one dealership to seven independent dealerships between 1996 and 2007. Harley product policy was to focus more into customers’ needs rather than the company, this is the strategy that was introduced in the early 1980’s and was subsequently implemented in South Africa. These customer-orientated services have differentiated the company from competitors, in the minds of customers in South Africa as it was about image, sense of Freedom and status. This help in dismissing the myth / reputation of its â€Å"bad boy† image. This was seconded by the gender split of 28% female and 72% of male’s riders in South Africa. Harley South Africa set  out to promote Harley’s into females who are independent with high salary income as the new market segment; the strateg y was to treat them as equals and as owners in their own right. Post 2007, the product policy changed to â€Å"Black Diamonds† with an effort to attract and increase the black market into Harley riders. Their marketing strategy was different as it had done very little above the line advertising, dealers were given freedom to determine their own promotional activities modified to their own client’s needs and demands. Classification: Specialty goods – Customers are willing to make an extended search to find Harley and in some cases, might be willing to travel 20 or 30 KM to find the bike. â€Å"Marketing mix† is a general phrase used to describe the different kinds of choices organizations have to make in the process of bringing a product or service to market. The Product which is one of the 4P’s is used in defining the marketing mix and is categorized into 4 pillars namely Product Mix; Product Design; Product Development and Product Life Cycle (Kotler & Keller, 14th Edition) 1. PRODUCT MIX: Product policy lies at the heart of the marketing mix and encompasses all qualitative aspects of the products offered. Product-mix refers to the range of products offered by an institution. Offering products that are valued and demanded by customers is key to the success of Harley in South Africa. 2. PRODUCT DESIGN The goal of product design is not to create a different product to satisfy every possible client need. Harley should design products that respond to several different needs with only a few variables. Product design variables must be appropriate for the markets that the Harley has decided to target. 3. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Product development is the process of continually refining client-oriented products. It includes several phases, such as exploring customer needs, screening ideas, evaluating products through pilot testing, revising product  design based on the results and finally, launching the products. All of these phases are intertwined. 4. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE Below is the summary of the four phases of the Harley product life cycle which include introduction, growth, maturity and decline. Core Benefits of owning a Harley: * Harley members have an enduring relationship built on trust and dependability supported by good service and meaningful advice as most of the riders especially females had no technical capabilities of some of the riders. * Become part of the Harley family which include meeting with business associates, share a cup of coffee with new riders and also talk to a friend. This has made most riders to have a â€Å"sense of belonging†. * Harley offer in-house finance and insurance program for riders / customers. * A full one-year membership in the Harley Owners Group (H.O.G) comes with every purchase of a new, unregistered Harley motorcycle. * Associate  memberships for H.O.G family members and passengers also benefit and become part of the Harley family membership. * Owner’s memberships are renewable at a discount and they can also become a member for life. * Full access to the company’s website, magazines each year, and a subscription to the special member publication, toll-free customer service and even a touring handbook for trip planning. * Harley also organizes and sponsor special events for H.O.G members including bike parades. * Analysing the Brand equity of Harley Davidson: When purchasing a Harley, the customer is endowed with an added value of a sensation of freedom offered by the product, the sense of belonging and a sense of exhibitionism offered by a Harley. Harley Davidson does not market the functional purpose of the bike but rather the emotional and psychological attributes of freedom and belonging. The success of the marketing approach and achievement of brand promise of such psychological attributes are well evidenced by the successful financial performance of Harley Davidson. The following case facts indicate that Harley commands higher prices, market share and profitability: * Steady share of half the USA heavyweight motorcycle market in 2006; * Annual growth in unit sales in South Africa had averaged 46% over the past few years. * Harley still held the majority share in SA market, an estimated 67%. The above indicates that Harley Davidson has strong brand equity credentials. We can further analyse the brand equity of Harley Davidson by applying one of the Brand Equity Models, ‘The Brand Resonance Model’ (Kotler and Keller YEAR) and applying the 6 fundamental building blocks of the resonance model to Harley Davidson: Building brand Equity The right brand knowledge structures targeted at the right consumer can build substantial brand equity (Kotler and Keller YEAR). An analysis of how Harley uses the 3 brand equity drivers (Kotler 2014) to build brand equity: 1. Brand elements – Harleys brand benefits are less concrete (freedom, sense of belonging etc) and thus it ensures that its brand elements focus on emotional and psychological attributes. E.g. slogans such as â€Å"The fun is not in the destination, the fun is in the journey†. In addition company marketing themes never emphasize on the bikes mechanical specifications but rather the associated lifestyle for owning a Harley. 2. Marketing activities – product/service – Lifestyle – How do customers make contact with the Harley brand: * Internal Branding – Harley’s primary focuses is on internal branding Harley makes extensive use of marketing through its brand community, the H.O.G. H.O.G members have a consciousness of kind† or sense of felt connection to Harley. i. H.O.G. as a channel for internal marketing has proved to be more effective than Harley’s external  marketing campaigns. ii. HOG is not organic but company-sponsored and facilitated because it’s one of the main and primary marketing activities. iii. H.O.G is a business strategy. The entire business model supports the H.O.G. iv. Harley’s cultivation and engineering of the H.O.G plays a significant role in growing and strengthening the brand * Individual Customer marketing v. Harley places a lot of marketing attention and focus on the individual customer. Significant investment is made towards dealerships being well equipped to cater for H.O.G meetings, vi. High individual customer focus pays off in terms of, significant sales arising from repeat customers, accessories, customisations of initial purchase, trading upwards after initial purchase etc. vii. Individual marketing to women on a personal basis as they walked into the store with their husbands or partner’s. This was successful in building brand equity amongst female customers. * External Branding is minimal. Harley does not do much mainstream advertising. This has a benefit of cost saving from not having to rely heavily on mainstream high cost advertising channels. Harley prefers to grow through existing dealerships. For example, Dealerships are equipped with coffee areas where staff can connect with customers that walk into the stores. 3. Leveraging secondary associations * Harley frequently associates itself with charity rides and motorcycle events. This allows it an opportunity to build on its brand promise of exhibitionism and belonging While applying the logic of the brand value chain (Kotler 2014) backwards, high profitability & market share arise from strong customer awareness and customer associations, which in turn arise from successful marketing programme investment. It could be inferred that Harley has generated valuable return from its marketing approach consistently over a period, indicating successful brand equity building over the years. Target Market: Harley Davidson’s new target market is the, ‘Black Diamond’. This has been their focus as they believe this market has potential. In 2007 the market totalled 2.6 million, while they managed to make sales totalling 709. This meant they had 27% of their target market. This was a drop when compared to the previous year. Post 1994 this target market has had opportunities that did not exist before. We also saw the emergence of BEE, which continues to make Black people more financially stable. This therefore makes this market an ideal market to focus on. Market profile: As much as the female rider target market is growing (28% by 2007) and has potential Harley needs to understand that there are still cultural issues that this market has to deal with. Such issues include that fact that for the black community for a woman to drive a motorcycle it might be not acceptable. Therefore, this would need Harley to come up with strategies to deal with this cultural perception in order for them to benefit from this market. Future product policy: Product Portfolio: Harley Davidson has managed to introduce accessories which are priced differently. This works as those that cannot afford to buy the motorcycles can still settle for other biker accessories thus improving margins. Harley needs to continue to widen its product mix. Usually a biker will buy one bike unless they can afford to buy more, therefore for Harley to continue gaining from this consumer they need to also focus more on their accessories which not only bikers like but also non bikers and family members. It was mentioned that 70% of the purchasers were non bikers. Harley however needs to be careful that its product system does not disadvantage its brand. This is seen as an exclusive brand and one needs to be careful that a product diversification does not bring down the value of the brand and result in consumers perceiving it as cheap. It is therefore important that we keep the current product portfolio as exclusive as possible to protect the brand. With the increase in fuel prices, Harley might need to consider a two-way stretch where they might need to produce cheaper motorcycles which are more  fuel efficient to encourage people who might not want to consider investing in a Harley due to costs. Strategies for growth: Driving in a Harley club is a spectacular moment, whether or not the bike itself was bought for show. Cruisers are differentiated products and Harley is the leader in that market but that is a double edge sword as its guaranteed popularity and high expectations as a result. They are effectively selling a lifestyle and for more people to buy into it and to keep those on board they need to focus on strengthening the product differentiation, design, brand and service differentiation. Bikes as an extension of personality and customers will associate with a product that delivers on the highest promise. The design of the bikes and features that are most useful and necessary to the rider are important, the customisation has resulted in unique end products for each customer, the quality in terms of performance and conformance need to me maintained at a level above the competition. Because customer needs and tastes vary, the service levels required to keep customers happy also varies, the service dimension of the business is therefore important in creating a strategy. By creating awareness about the product and pricing mix and different after sales service options available to the customer (delivery, training, consultation, HOG, maintenance and repair options), Harley Davidson SA can bridge the information gap and appeal to a larger market. Targeting the Black diamond: This is one of the fastest growing segments in the South African economic context, the majority being young and qualified and earning a more than descent constant salary. Mostly growing up post apartheid, this group is less stereotypical and more adventurous and likely to try new things than was previously not associated with the age segment. This is the new financial muscle of the South African economy and Harley Davidson should explore it purely as a potential market for its affluence and exploratory capacity if not for its perceived desire for opulence and status. As a product that provides pleasure, fun and value, there is no reason not to tap into this virgin market that hasn’t yet grasped its stance or identity  relative to the previous politically influenced generation. Harley-Davidson Services According to Kotler and Keller, †The customer will judge the offering by three basic elements: product features & quality, services mix and quality, and price† (Refer to Fig 12.1). In our technologically age it is now easier for any company products to be replicated and even produced much cheaper too. This makes the element of â€Å"service quality and mix† very important to marketers. The service quality and mix Harley-Davidson offers to its customers will be a source of competitive advantage. The customer value hierarchy diagram places an ‘augmented product’ at a very high level (Fig 12.2). Customers will value an augmented product because of its additional features and services that come with it. Harley-Davidson should aim for service differentiation at all stages of the buying process and after purchase: (Ordering Ease, Delivery, Bike-riding training, customer consulting, maintenance and repair). The customer service personnel employed by Harley-Davidson will affect the quality of service. The company would need to ensure that they hire and train the right people for the jobs. Employee satisfaction would be critical to making sure the employees have a positive attitude as they work with customers. The marketing department at Harley-Davidson has to understand the needs and wants of their customers in order to satisfy them. Customers are concerned with reliability, service dependability and maintenance costs of the motorbike. A service-quality management system would also need to be set up plus monitoring systems to ensure that all customer complaints are handled properly.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Voltaire's Candide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Voltaire's Candide - Essay Example Female characters have been shown inhumanly beaten, molested, raped, enslaved and sold again and again from one hand to another. Although, Voltaire was popular for having vocally favored and propagated the equal rights of women, yet, this feeling is not noticeably perceptible in Candide, particularly taking into consideration the reality that the major female characters are negatively portrayed as prostitutes, lustful women that marry for wealth, infected disease-carriers, and most prominently victims. In general, while Voltaire’s effort was definitely seditious and critical of society, any prospective revolutionary value lies only within the sagacity that it uncovered weaknesses in the prevailing communal configuration. Female Characters; Evolution of Sufferings Throughout the novella, its female characters have endured numerous challenges and undergone extreme sufferings, which have made it tremendously difficult for Candide to continue to believe Pangloss's philosophy. Huma ns are either destined to live in misery or in the lethargy of boredom. This is ridiculing and is brought about by the famous saying, "All is for the best in the best of all possible worlds". And in no way are we meant to be receiving Pangloss as a believable character; like Candide he is over exaggerated and distorted to the extent that his philosophy is almost inseparable from his character. One finds that Pangloss is a recurring nightmare of Candide in the way that he constantly returns from moments of almost certain peril alive, and therefore re-ignites the morsels of optimism that Candide still contains. Pangloss maintains that this is the best of all possible worlds, when really they are living in a cave, cut off from the suffering that still rages in the outside world. The Writer’s Purpose of Specific Depiction of Female Characters One must assume that his main purpose throughout the novella is that he provides a hole through which Voltaire can attack the optimists, bu t underlyingly to keep the story alive in the way that Candide still maintains faith and optimism that all will turn out well in the end. The significance of the Eldorado episode is to provide a frame of reference from which to compare Europe. Voltaire uses Eldorado rhetorically to contrast vices of the real world. What he is really doing is enforcing the fact that Europe is full of evil, sarcastically saying, "If you hadn’t noticed yet this is how bad Europe is," compared with somewhere in South America. But the Eldorado episode brings Candide riches, and this is a chance for Voltaire to put Candide up on a pedestal and then bring him right down again, and lower. Candide loses all his money and realizes that it just makes him a target for all sorts of swindlers, like the Vanderdendur and the Surinamese officers who try and get as much money from Candide as possible. Eldoardo is Voltaire’s paradise, his ideal world, it is void of religion and rules, it is educational, and practical, and the people there are friendly. His financial injury inspires more pessimism in him than violence ever did. This crushing of Candide through the removal of his riches lets Voltaire really point out the power of greed in man and he thoroughly ridicules the irrationality of human priorities. But one must also understand how Eldorado shows how insignificant and valueless something can be if there it exists in large quantities. So one would argue that the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Performance management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Performance management - Essay Example Impact of organizational culture however depends on its pervasiveness within an organization whether it is widespread, or shared among the members of the group. 2. Can the culture of an organization be changed to increase performance?   To better answer, culture must be first placed in proper perspective of what it is really all about and what it does so that any attempt to determine whether culture can be changed to increase performance will be properly grounded. Culture, is the shared philosophies, ideologies, values, assumptions, beliefs, expectations, attitude, and norms that knit a community together. All of these interrelated psychological qualities reveal a groups agreement, implicit or explicit, on how to approach decisions and problems: â€Å"the ways things are done around here.† (Kilmann, 1986). Culture is manifest in behavioral norms, hidden assumptions, and human nature, each occurring at a different level of depth. â€Å"At its deepest level, culture is the co llective manifestation of human nature – the collection of human dynamics, wants, motives and desires that make a group of people unique† (Kilmann, 1986). Culture is the behavior and mindset that animates the organization to stay in a competitive environment. ... And â€Å"whether a given culture can be changed depends on how deep-seated the culture is and whether multiple culture exist. The deeper the level at which culture change is required and the more cultures there are in the organization, the more difficult and time consuming the culture change process. When culture change involves changing surface-level behavioral norms, it can occur with relative ease because members can articulate what behaviors are required for success today in contrast to those required yesterday. In addition, closing the gap between actual and desire norm is easier if the desired norms are essentially the same throughout the organization – if the environment is homogenous. Even when multiple cultures exist, requiring different changes in each work group, change is still easier to effect when the focus of culture change is on behavioral norms rather than hidden assumptions or hidden nature (Kilmann, 1986). 3. As a senior leader in an organization what can you do to change the culture and in turn increase performance of the business?   As a senior leader in an organization, culture can be changed on a top down when â€Å"one single corporate culture exists (and those at the top thus could be accurate in their view of their desired culture) and if the focus is on changing norms and not assumptions. â€Å"This is however may be difficult to sustain, even though such changes may be easy to bring about; top-down approaches generally result in overt compliance to what is mandated, not covert acceptance† (Kilmann, 1986) So that, a participative approaches to changing underlying assumptions, although difficult and time-consuming to

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Quantitative and Qualitative How smartphones influence teenagers in EF Research Paper

Quantitative and Qualitative How smartphones influence teenagers in EF Cambridge - Research Paper Example The study will aim at carrying out a study of Smartphones in the teenage world. It will also aim at performing the study how Smartphones have affected the daily lives of teenagers at EF Cambridge. Teenagers feel that Smartphones reduce their work load. For instance, Smartphones allow teenagers to slide their screens effortlessly rather than tapping keys like conventional phones. Smartphones have applications like facebook, twitter, whatsap, and other social sites that help in the creation of new friendships (Zheng and Lionel 2006, p.1). Alternatively, Smartphones seem to have created more problems because teenagers have become lonesome, exposure to bullying, and exam cheating. The study gained more information from journals and books on Smartphones and their markets. The study used questionnaires as the main method of collecting data for the study. The questionnaires contained two sections; the first section required teenagers at EF Cambridge to give their views toward the pros and cons of utilizing Smartphones. The second section of the questionnaires required several teenagers who did not own Smartphones to give their reasons and the present trend of owning Smartphones. One hundred and twenty (120) teenagers took part in the study but only 100 questionnaires were received. The study possessed several limitations. The data collected was inadequate to give a definite answer regarding the influence of smart phones amongst teenagers at EF Cambridge. The study occurred between 120 students whereby only 100 return their questionnaires. The number of participants was very small to represent the high number of teenagers in EF Cambridge. Hingorani, Woodard, and Askari-Danesh (2012), p.33) all from Alabama State University discovered that smart phones have become powerful gadgets amongst young people compared to computers. Sarwar and Soomro (2013, 217) discovered that mobile communication has

Equity Theory (Adams) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Equity Theory (Adams) - Essay Example ng to Adams, in relation to a given work situation, employees seek to maintain equity when it comes to the rewards they get from their jobs and the inputs they give to it. Without maintaining this equity, the employees would feel negatively about their work situation and be distressed about it. Overtime, the idea of equity has been developed to include and influence many other facets of organizational behavior. Two of these are the psychological contract and employee motivation since they stand out as primary examples where the equity theory becomes applicable. The idea of establishing or creating equity between the employee and the company is very clearly seen when it comes to motivation since according to the theory employees seek to create equitable relationships and rewards can be used to make individuals work harder. However, when it comes to the psychological contract, the application of the equity theory is more subtle therefore it would be important to understand how the psychological contract and the equity theory complement each other. Robinson and Rousseau (1994) say that the psychological contract is quite important for all facets of management and those employees who are given employment with a company hope to obtain equal benefits from their employment as compared to the input they are giving to the company. In essence, the psychological contract of an employee is based on the idea of creating equity. As per the meaning of the term, a psychological contract is the implicit contract of several deep understandings between the company and the employee as they relate to the expectations of the employee and the obligations of the company (Emott, 2006). Guest (2004) takes an even larger view of the psychological contract in employment situations where recommends that a full understanding of an equitable relationship should incorporate fairness to both parties and it should be based on mutual trust. This kind of equity is perhaps too idealistic since it

Friday, July 26, 2019

The American Male at Age Ten & Orchid Fever by Susan Orlean Essay

The American Male at Age Ten & Orchid Fever by Susan Orlean - Essay Example According to the study at the age of ten, a child may surprise you with his awareness of what goes on in society. At the same time, however, he may amaze you with how the little things in his life make it significant. Similarly, someone who is passionate about something will find meaning in life even with the menial things that satisfy his zeal. Susan Orlean is known to write about ordinary people â€Å"who are not normally in the public eye or consciousness, but in whose very ordinariness Orlean finds something extraordinary.† Because of her essay topics, Orlean enables her readers, and even herself, to be in awe at how everyday people can have such meaningful lives. There is nothing unusual about the people in the middle of Orleans stories. They are not famous celebrities or notorious folks. They are, however, passionate about things or people that are important to them. Because of this, their lives have become exceptional. From this study it is clear that in â€Å"The American Male at Age Ten†, Orlean describes the life of a typical 10-year old American boy living in the suburbs. Like any boy his age, Colin Duffy shows the writer’s audience that he can be a child and yet at the same time be as sensitive and mature in thinking as an older person. The author shares that Colin plays games and pranks and hangs out with his best bud. Amidst all this carefree behavior, Orlean also describes Colin as someone smart, aware of social issues normally discussed between adults and has a mind which can and does process a lot of stuff whenever Colin feels like it. Towards the end of the essay, the reader is made to realize that although Colin is just ten, there is more to him than just video games and childish pranks.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

PGCE Unit 1 professional practice ( A reflective journal ) Essay

PGCE Unit 1 professional practice ( A reflective journal ) - Essay Example In further elaboration of the motivation phenomenon, Atherton (2004) defines it as "either intrinsic/expressive (doing something for its own sake) or extrinsic/instrumental (doing something for some other reason)." Contrary to Petty’s (1993) presentation, Atherton (2004) emphasises that motivation is not an indivisible whole but is comprised of two distinct forms. While Pettys (1993) assertion is largely true, he oversimplifies the complex phenomenon of motivation, in which instance one need turn to Atherton (2004) for a more accurate understanding of the mentioned. In further elaboration of the stated, while Petty has correctly identified the centrality of motivation to effective learning, he incorrectly identifies teachers as the primary instigators of motivation. In essence, Petty (1993:32) lays much, if not all, of the responsibility for the generation of motivation upon teachers whereby he defines this particular task as the "greatest challenge that many teachers face." This is an oversimplification of the phenomenon of motivation, implying that motivation is essentially extrinsic whereby, as noted by Atherton (2004) it is both intrinsic and extrinsic. A teacher, through the enthusiasm with which he/she approaches the information communication responsibility, can similarly enthuse learners and, through the creation of a positive learning environment, characterized by encouragement and trust, can enhance the confidence levels of individual learners, thereby injecting them with the motivation to learn. However, as may be observed, a teachers motivation-elevation capacities are limited to the extrinsic, while effective learning is predicated on the presence of requisite minimal levels of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Petty does not admit to the explicated differentiation, rendering his observation only partially accurate. As language, literacy and numeracy skills vary

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Integration question Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Integration question - Assignment Example While the basic fundamentals of marketing relating to the process of value creation, value communication, value distribution and value capture essentially remains the same, it can be increasingly said that the application of the processes has changed a lot. Various forms of marketing have emerged with the evolution of technology sponsored platforms, which enhances and multiplies the power of marketing. The secret to marketing still surround the process of retaining existing customers, while going for acquisition of new customers by creating as well as enhancing the demand for products and services, while making the consumers and clients of their enhanced and ever evolving needs. The process of introduction of the US Consumer Bill Of Rights in the year 1963 enhanced the power of consumers by providing the right to information, safety, and choice as well as consumer voice. This led to the emergence of a consumption pattern, where consumers more increasingly focused on the process of ac quisition of materialistic goods. This significantly led to the development of a hyper consuming consumer behavior which contributed towards the development of a significant level of disconnectedness amongst the individuals. This significantly contributed to the development of a consumer attitude which is increasingly looking for more substance and more meaning to their demands. (Euro RSCG Worldwide, 2010b) Lazer in his paper in the year 1969 increasingly highlighted the fact that the marketers were more involved and more interested with the societal and lifestyle trends of the American hyper consuming consumers and this had led to the high level focus on the marketing for the purpose of influencing the consumer behavior with regards to particular products and services. Lazer also increasingly highlighted that the culture of hyper consumption that was existent in the developed countries like America was supposed to spread to other developing and emerging economies and countries, irr espective of the differences existing in terms of culture (Lazer, 1969, p.5). However, in the recent times, there have been massive changes with regards to the macro factors affecting the globe. The world economy has seen a tremendous amount of turmoil, owing to the bust of the housing bubble in the United States in the year 2008, and the simultaneous collapse of Lehmann Brothers, which pushed the world in the brink of an economic catastrophe. As a direct effect of the slowdown around the globe, which was planted by the financial crisis in the US, it can be increasingly said that the organizations around the world embraced the process of downsizing of staff in an attempt to cut down on organizational spending and attempting to sport a more leaner look. As a result of massive job cuts in the advanced Western economies, the consumers in the developed countries experienced a change in consumer behavior. The consumers of advanced countries, owing to the financial crisis, responded in a very significant manner for the purpose of overcoming the financial credit crunch around the world. They became more and more aware of their basic needs and wants, while attempting to curtail

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Defend the position that Plato takes that philosophers should be Essay

Defend the position that Plato takes that philosophers should be rulers, or the contrary, that rulers should not be philosophers - Essay Example Democracy in Athens has been full of individualism and political selfishness. In addition, most people living in Athens captured governmental jobs for their own self-centered reasons and finally divided the city into two hostile groups of the rich and poor. The other group formed was that of the oppressor and the oppressed. Conversely, Plato’s philosophy on virtue and justice greatly impacted democracy. Plato’s viewpoints provided a well-known place to the notion of justice. He was not happy with the existing decaying conditions in Athens. A number of his attacks majorly criticized the unpaid meddlesomeness and extreme uniqueness. He criticized the system of government through the creation of an ideal society where justice was embraced in all the activities within the city. This is because Plato had discovered that the problems in this context could only be treated by ensuring that people are treated equally and with a lot of justice. It is important to note that there had been a number of hypotheses of justice before Plato came into the limelight. Therefore, he had to reject the theories. For instance, he did not support the traditional theory of justice since he believed that justice was about saying the truth and settling one’s debt. According to Plato, the theories which were presented by Cephalus, Thrasymachus, and Glaucon had a common element. They handled justice an achievement, importation, or convention. Therefore, he was able to verify that justice is not based on chance, togetherness, or external forces. He was able to provide different meaning of justice hence people could easily understand what he meant. For instance, the people living in Athens accepted that justice cannot be obtained without three elements (reason, spirit, and appetite). Democracy also prevailed after people had realized that their souls operated without affecting other elements in the body. There are also three categories of the social organism-philosopher

Monday, July 22, 2019

Problem Formulation and Identification Process Essay Example for Free

Problem Formulation and Identification Process Essay It doesnt matter which side of the fence you get off on sometimes. What matters most is getting off. You cannot make progress without making decisions (Jim Rohn). In the corporate world, leaders are faced with decisions that can make or break the organizations they represent. Several methods, consensus, brainstorming, systematic, and democratic are used in the decision making process. This paper will investigate the decision-making processes most prevalent in each team members organization, compare and contrast them, and will show the most favorable aspect of each style. Consensus The name of my company is Envicor. Envicor is a plastics molding company that manufactures anything that can be made of plastic. This author was recently hired as the national sales manager to oversee Envicors newest product line, sporting goods equipment. This authors job is to promote the sale of portable pitching mounds to a broad range of customers. When it comes to decision making, Envicor uses the consensus method. Consensus is a process using group decision making. The input and ideas of all participants are gathered and synthesized to arrive at a final decision acceptable to all. Through consensus, the company is not only working to achieve better solutions, but also to promote the growth of community and trust. Consensus takes more time, as many resources are investigated before a decision is made. Team members become committed to the decision through consensus. The consensus method gives everyone experience with new processes of interaction and conflict resolution. For consensus to be a positive experience, the group should have 1) common values, 2) some skill in group process and conflict resolution, or a commitment to let these be facilitated,3) commitment and responsibility to the group by its members, and 4) sufficient time for everyone to participate in the process (C.D.T. 2009). The goal of Envicor is to expand our product line to as many customers as possible. After making contact with a catalog company, a meeting is called  in order to discuss the pros and cons of including our product in the catalog. In the meetings, each person gets a chance to give his or her opinion. Once everyone has spoken, a decision is made. By using the consensus method, the group is able to come together and make a decision based on each persons opinion. Advantages and disadvantages exist when using the consensus method of decision making.. Some examples are:Strengths:†¢Encourages cooperation instead of competition†¢Garners trust and confidence; everyone is involved in the final decision†¢Everyone agrees to the final decision no matter whether a majority, minority, or lone voiceWeaknesses†¢Lack of experience may lead to inefficient use of the method†¢Lack of control in meetings, conversation goes off topic†¢No ownership when decision is not correct or no consensus made (Notes on Consensus-Decision Making). Consensus seems to work well for smaller companies because it allows them to actually talk out their decisions and come together. Bigger companies might struggle with this type of decision making process because there might be too many employees and it could waste a lot of time. Brainstorming In the brainstorming model, all employees use free thinking to create ideas that will later be used as part of the projects process. Brainstorming is useful because it allows all employees, some with extensive experience, to give their input. All members contributions allow them to own their role within the group and therefore, believe they have been a larger part of greater good. Like other decision making processes, brainstorming has advantages and disadvantages. One advantage is that all decisions are reached by consensus of the entire group. The larger the group is in a brainstorming session, the better the results will be. Everyone works from his or her strengths, weaknesses, experience, and education to find the best results for the project. Next, by making the decision a group project, everyone has a chance to  participate in the decision making process. They are able to voice their objections and give alternative suggestions. This open forum allows ideas to flow freely, and sound decisions are made quickly. A disadvantage of brainstorming is similar to one of its advantages. With more than two or three employees making a decision, the result can become a point of contention and a fight for power within the group. The more people involved in the process, the greater the propensity for debate, creating the possibility of a stalemate. Another disadvantage of brainstorming is something called group think. This occurs when one member of a group makes a statement, and the others follow along. Nothing is accomplished because only one person is making the decision with no alternate suggestions. An open dialogue does not exist; therefore, solutions to problems are not properly explored. SystematicThe systematic approach to decision-making is rational and analytical. (Concise Handbook of Management) This approach employs existing data, and the goal of the decision is the focus of the steps taken to put the decision together. This authors organization uses the systematic approach for making most decisions. A strength of using the systematic approach is that information used to reach the final decision is based on factual data. The goal has been clearly identified; the objective(s) have been defined; the impact of not addressing the issue has been established. A weakness of systematic decision making, an example of which will be described in the following paragraphs, is that the decision can become stalled in the process. Additionally, regardless of how much research is done, if all principal stakeholders are not engaged in the process, a negative outcome is possible. Several years ago this authors company developed a product that was designed to align with current imaging procedures. The equipment is a dual-head injector for use in CT scan. The purpose of the dual-head is to provide Radiologists with the capability of using not only contrast media for the CT exams, but also saline. Benefits of having the saline option developed as  the clinical team became more familiar with the system, but initially the service team was concerned about damage occurring to the injector head if a saline syringe was not used. At that time, without consulting other stakeholders, the service and engineering teams went to work on a solution that would prevent this issue.Several years later, as the clinical team was successfully promoting saline usage, the engineering department began shipping a cap for the saline side of the injector. Yes, the issue had been clearly identified, the objective for the project was defined, and the impact of not addressing the issue had been determined. However, because all stakeholders in the decision were not involved, and because the process took so long, the decision and resulting action became a very expensive mistake. Democratic In this participative form of the decision making process the superior(s) gives complete ownership of the decision to the subordinates (Sager 1999). The democratic decision making process allows for the employees (stakeholders) to have ownership of the decisions that are made. The majority vote wins, which can lead to fast and effective decisions concerning the stakeholders. In this decision making process the adage regarding having strength in numbers reigns true. A drawback to the democratic process can be that no one person takes responsibility for the decision if something goes wrong. It may be hard to pinpoint how the decision came to such a conclusion if it does not work out for the benefit for the stakeholders. In using the example of the Health Insurance Accountability and Portability Act (HIPPA) of 1996, a vote for change by a group of individuals affected by the way health records were handled was applauded, then when implemented, the act became more a hindrance than a solution to a problem. In the vast health systems used there was a need to implement a privacy feature to protect patients information, so the HIPPA regulations were signed into law in 1996. HIPPA was implemented by a democratic decision making process and became popular with health organizations such as Medicare and well known health insurance companies. Later HIPPAs biggest fans became its biggest objectors because the law made it impossible for anyone to get  health information on the patient, including the parent(s) or guardians of minor children and the elderly, unless there was a form signed by the patient, the legal guardian, or POA. HIPPA soon became more frustrating than helpful, and the majority who voted for its implementation became the majority opposing it. So in implementing the democratic decision making process for the good of the people to whom the power is given, it must be made known that with great power comes great responsibility (Uncle Ben, Spider Man Pt1). Contrast and ComparisonProblems and issues are generally inevitable when people are working together. Each individual decision making process can allow for better management of those situations for building a better organization. This does not mean there will be an absence of issues, but whether or not the team resolves the problem effectively. Each decision making process described above demonstrates to the reader the importance of adhering to a process that will work for each organization. The consensus method shows how the power of agreement can lead to a good decision. However, this method can be time consuming and teamwork plays a major role. Brainstorming will allow for creativity and open ideas, but can also cause conflicts and debates among the group members due to so many independent ideas being presented. In the systematic approach to decision making organization is critical. This process bases decisions on factual information. The systematic process can be costly if all members are not involved in the final decision. Democratic decisions are made based on majority input. The stakeholders are in total control of the decision making process. Speedy and effective decisions can be made; however, problems can occur because not everyone who can vote will vote. Then if a decision has a negative impact on the group it can be hard to identify the owner of the problem. The authors of this paper have investigated four types of decision making, consensus, brainstorming, systematic, and democratic. Advantages and disadvantages of each type have been presented, and finally, all were compared and contrasted with each other. References Consensus Decision Making. Aids Coalition to Unleash Power. Retrieved May 19, 2009. http://www.actupny.org/documents/CDdocuments/Consensus.htmlNotes on Consensus-Decision Making. Retrieved May 19, 2009. www.vernalproject.org/papers/process/ConsensNotes.pdfScott, Jonathan T. 2009, Concise Handbook of Management: A Practitioners ApproachChapter 17: Managerial Decision Making and Problem Solving, p131- 138retrieved 5/19/09 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/ehost/pdf?vid=9hid=106sid=f7f74d3b-190b-4f87-ae2e-438809c65b35%40sessionmgr109McConnell, C. R. (2006). Umikers Management Skills for the New Health Care Supervisor. Ch 25 pp.337-345. Sager, K.L., Gastil, J.,(1999). Reaching consensus on consensus Communication Quarterly. 47(1), 67-79.

The Color Purple Monologue Essay Example for Free

The Color Purple Monologue Essay Youre nothing but a piece oh shit on the bottom of my shoe, thats whats wrong. Im leaving with Shug and getting away from you. Youre a dirty rat and your dead body is just the welcome I need to leave you. You might have been a half way decent man if your father raised you right. You know that Nettie was all I had and the only one that loved me and you took her away from me. Youre nothing but trash for doing that to me. Youre cruel but it dont matter no more. My sister is taking care of my children in Africa. My children Olivia and Adam are learning different languages and are coming back home soon. And when they get here we are all gona whoop your ass for doing that to me. And we will do it with no regret for the things you done to me. Beating a woman doesnt do shit and Im gona laugh when everything you wish for crumbles down. My children are gona turn out way better then these blockheads you never made the time to raise. If your son Harpo hadnt tried to beat Sofia into submission then the white people would have never gotten to her. She wouldnt have gotten sent to jail either. You had rotten kids. They made my life hell, they did. But of course you aint nothing but some horse shit. You thought beating me would make me submit to your will? Well, boy you sure are wrong. No one ever is gona treat me that way no more. With you I felt that I wanted to go somewhere but I couldnt. I almost got my spirit beaten outa me and I just wanted to rot somewhere. And I never even asked you for a God damn thing!!! I never asked you for nothing at all!!! Not even your hand in marriage. I never asked you for nothing, but your sorry ass asked everything from me. Wash the dishes, clean the house, feed the kids, shave my beard. And I never got nothing in return!! But I never complained bout that cause I know you would just beat the shit outa me!! And until you do me right then everything you touch is gona crumble down on your sorry ass. You may think that I will come back but so help me God I would rather die then to live in this house with you. When you do your business on top of me I would always just pretend I wasnt there. I may not have talent and spunk like Shug but I got me some will now. I aint ever gona back down from anyone no more. I almost killed you when I was shaving you. If Shug wasnt there to save you I would have killed you. I should have done it for all the wrong you did to me. Until you treat me right everything you try to succeed at is just gona fail. Its gona be a rude awakening you realize that you cant live without me. You cant even cook breakfast without burning the damn thing. Everything you done to me I have already done to you. You just dont know it. And even if I havent done all that you have done to me its gona happen to you. Its gona come back and bite you in the ass for what you done to me. You will live in misery and you wont be able to live with yourself. You will probably drive yourself crazy and Ima have my head kept high. I dont need you. You think I need you but, its the other way around. You say Im nothing but an ugly black poor woman but listen here. I am black. I am poor. And I may be ugly but Im away from you and thats all I need.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Memristor Spice Model For Designing Memristor Circuits Economics Essay

Memristor Spice Model For Designing Memristor Circuits Economics Essay Memristors are novel electronic devices, a device that can be used and give a great advantage in many applications such as memory, logic, neuromorphic systems and so on. A computer model of the memristor would be a useful tool to analysis circuit behavior to help in develops application of this memristor as passive circuit element via simulation. In this paper, we incorporate a memristor SPICE for designing memristor circuit which is more focusing on non-linear model and analog circuits. SPICE model would be appropriate way to describe real device operation. We incorporating the memristor with various window functions that have been proposed in non linear ion drift memristor devices. In investigating and characterizing the physical electronic and behavioral properties of memristor devices, the circuit analysis of the proposed memristor models are then been studied. The simulation output should have a current-voltage hysteresis curve, which looks like bow tie. The loops map the switch ing behavior of the device. Then, we come out with a simple analog circuit which in this case we construct a simple integrator op-amp and differentiator op-amp circuit and make comparison between memristor implemented circuit and normal circuit. The research verifies the proposed memristor model, the possibilities of implementing memristor model and the advantage implementing the memristor in analog circuit. Keywords memristor, SPICE model, non linear, window functions, analog circuit. Introduction Memristor is the contraction of memory resistor which is a passive device that provides a functional relation between charge and flux. It is a two-terminal circuit element in which the flux between the two terminals is a function of the amount of electric charge that has passed through the device [1]. A memristor is said to be charge-controlled if the relation between flux and charge is expressed as a function of electric charge and it is said to be flux-controlled if the relation between flux and charge is expressed as a function of the flux linkage [2]. In 1971, Leon Chua proposed that there should be a fourth fundamental passive circuit element to create a mathematical relationship between electric charge and magnetic flux which he called the memristor which is short for memory resistor [2]. The current is defined as the time derivative of the charge. The voltage is defined as the time derivative of the flux according the faraday law. A resistor is defined by the relationship between voltage and current dv=Rdi, the capacitor is defined by the relationship between charge and voltage dq=Cdv, the inductor is defined by the relationship between flux and current dà Ã¢â‚¬  =Ldi. The fourth fundamental circuit element completes the symmetry of the relation between charge and magnetic flux dà Ã¢â‚¬  =Mdq. Table 1 show the relationship between the fundamental circuit element. Basic two terminal devices Equation Relationship between fundamental circuit element Resistor,R dv=Rdi v and i Capacitor,C dq=Cdv v and q Inductor,L dà Ã¢â‚¬  =Ldi i and à Ã¢â‚¬   Memristor,M dà Ã¢â‚¬  =Mdq q and à Ã¢â‚¬   Table 1: The four fundamental element (resistor, capacitor, inductor and memristor). In 2008, Stanley Williams and his team at Hewlett Packard had succesfully fabricated the first memristor in physical device form which is a long wait from Leon Chua discovery in 1971 [3]. Memristance is a property of memristor. When the charge flows in one direction through a circuit, the resistances of the memristor increase. The resistance decreases when the charge flows in the opposite direction in the circuit. If the applied voltage is turned off, thus stopping the flow of charge and the memristor remembers the last resistance that it had [1]. In HP memristor model, to create a memristor, they used a very thin film of titanium dioxide (TiO2). The thin film is then sandwiched between the two platinum (Pt) contacts. One side of TiO2 is doped with oxygen vacancies denoted as TiO2-x which x is usually 0.05. The oxygen vacancies are positively charged ion and make it conductive, thus it behaves as a semiconductor. Another side of the TiO2 junction is undoped. The undoped region has insulating properties. The device established by HP is shown in Figure 1 [3]. Figure 1: Memristor model adapt from [3]. When a positive voltage is applied, the positively charged oxygen vacancies in the doped TiO2-x layer are repelled and moving them towards to the undoped TiO2 layer. When the boundary between the two materials moves, the percentage of the conducting TiO2-x layer is increase. Thus, the conductivity of the whole device increases. When a negative voltage is applied, the positively charged oxygen vacancies are attracted and pulling them out of TiO2 layer. This increases the amount of insulating TiO2, thus increasing the resistivity of the whole device. When the voltage is turned off, the oxygen vacancies do not move. The boundary between the two titanium dioxide layers is frozen. This is how the memristor remembers the voltage last applied [1]. Methodology Our aim in this research is to provide a simulation program adequately simulates and can be used as a circuit element in design work. To model the electrical characteristics of the memristor, SPICE would be appropriate way to describe real device operation [4]. Moreover, using the model as a sub-circuit can highly guarantee a reasonable high flexibility and scalability features [5]. We use LTSPICE to create a memristor model and design new symbol of the memristor circuit for the simulation because LTSPICE is much easier to handle compared to others. On the other hand, LTSPICE is a freeware and it will give a great advantage to the students in doing research for this newly devices. We use SPICE model that been adapt from [6] and we made some adjustment so we can use it for several window functions that has been proposed for non linear ion drift model. The SPICE model is created based on the mathematical model of the HP Labs memristor. After the memristor has been modeled, we first studied the difference between proposed memristor and then we will start design and implement the memristor with an analog circuit. We also investigate and made a comparison between the memristor circuit with analog circuit to see the difference and study the behavior of the circuits. Model Of The Memristor from HP Labs In the model of a memristor presented here, there is a thin semiconductor film that has two regions, one with a high concentration of dopant that behaves like a low resistance called RON and the other with a low dopant concentration with higher resistance called ROFF [3]. The film is sandwiched between two metal contacts as in figure 1. The total resistance of the memristor, RMEM, is a sum of the resistances of the doped and undoped regions, w is the width of the doped region and D is the total length of the TiO2 layer. ROFF and RON will be the limit values of the memristor resistance for w=0 and w=D. The ratio of the two resistances is usually given as 102 103. (1) (2) From the ohms law relation between the memristor voltages and current, we get (3) Then, we insert (1) into (3). The voltage v(t) across the device will move the boundary between the two regions causing the charged dopants to drift. So, there is a drift ion mobility  µv in the device. The change of the boundary is denoted as in (5). (4) (5) To get x(t), we then integrates the right side of equation (5) which then yields the following formula (6) By inserting equation (6) into equation (4) and since usually RON (7) Where  µv is the average drift velocity and has the units cm2/sV, D is the thickness of titanium-dioxide film ROFF and RON are on-state and off-state resistances and q(t) is the total charge passing through the memristor device. Non Linear Ion Drift Model Even a small voltage across the nanodevices will produce a large electric field [7]. This causing the ion boundary position will move in a decidedly non-linear. Nonlinear dopant drift adds nonlinear window function f(x) to the state equation. The window function decreases as the state variables drift speed approaches the boundaries until it reaches zero when reaching either boundaries [8]. The speeds of the movement of the boundary between the doped and undoped regions are depending on several factors. (8) Where  µv is the dopant mobility. The speed of the boundary between the doped and undoped regions decreases gradually to zero at the film edges [1]. We simulate the nonlinear ion drift memristor model with these window function to see the difference and the issue that been faced by them. Window Function Window function is a function of the state variable. Window function forces the bounds of the device and to add nonlinear behavior close to these bounds. In other words, it creates the boundary for the memristor. Any effective window function should therefore fulfill the following conditions [8]: Take into account the boundary conditions at the top and bottom electrodes of the device; Be capable of imposing nonlinear drift over the entire active core of the device; Provide linkage between the linear and nonlinear dopant drift models; Be scalable, meaning a range of fmax(x) can be obtained such that 0 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ fmax(x) à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 1; Utilize a built-in control parameter for adjusting the model. There are several window functions that have been proposed for non-linear model till date which are by Strukov, Joglekar and, Biolek, and Prodromakis. Strukov proposed the following window function [3]. (9) However, as we can see in the figure 2, this window function lacks of flexibility. Figure 2: Plot of Strukov window function. Another window function was proposed by Joglekar [4], which has a control parameter p which is a positive integer. The purpose of having a control parameter as an exponent is to incorporate scalability and flexibility in window function f(x) that describes the dopant kinetics. (10) Figure 3 displays a graphical representation of the window function described by Joglekar for various p parameter (p=1, 5 and 10). This control parameter controls the linearity of the model, where it becomes more linear as p increases. This window function ensures zero drift at the boundaries. From the plotted graph, we noticed that the maximum f(x) value is occurs at the center of the device and zero is obtained at two boundaries. However, a significant liability of this model lies in the fact that if w hits any of the boundaries (w = 0 or w = D) the state of the device cannot be further adjusted. This will be from now on termed as the terminal state problem. Figure 3: Plot of Joglekar window function for p=1, 5 and 10. Then, Biolek proposed another window function that allows the memristor to come back from the terminal state problem. (11) The reversed bias is now should move back the state variable after it reaches either boundary. This feature is described by a current dependent step function, stp(i), which is a part of a new window function f(x) that behaves differently in each voltage bias direction. (12) Figure 4: Plot of Biolek window function for p=1, 5 and 10. Figure 4 displays a graphical representation of the window function described by Biolek for various p parameter (p=1, 5 and 10). When x starts at 0, we noticed that the function equal to 1. As x increase approaching D, the function approaches 0. Once the current reverse the direction, the function immediately switch to 1. As x decrease back to 0, the function also decreases to 0. Biolek window function eliminates convergence issues at the devices boundaries. The last window function for non-linear model is proposed by Prodromakis [8]. (13) Figure 5 displays a graphical representation of the window function described by Prodromakis for various p parameter (p=1, 5 and 10). As we can see, it allows the window function to scale upwards which implies that fmax(x) can take any value within 0 Figure 5: Plot of Prodromakis window function for p=1, 5 and 10. SPICE Model of Memristor Figure 6: Stucture of the SPICE model from [6]. In the above circuit in figure 6, VMEM is the input voltage and Imem is modeled to be the current through the memristor. The flux is calculated by integrating the voltage VMEM and the charge is calculated by integrating the current IMEM. Figure 7: Resistive port of the memristor model. As we can see in figure 7, the circuit is actually referred to total resistor RMEM. RMEM (x) = ROFF -xà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  R where à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  R= ROFF-RON. ROFF is the resistor in series voltage source whose terminal voltage is controlled by the formula -xà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  R. Figure 8: Differential equation modeling of the memristor. Figure 8 shows the differential equation modeling of the memrsitor. It consist a part of the voltage controlled source xà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  R and the differential equation from equation (6) which serves as an integrator of the quantities on the right side of the state equation (6) which is to get the value of normalize x. EMEM is the voltage source whose terminal voltage is controlled according to the formula -xà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  R. GX is a current source whose current is controlled according to the equation IMEMf(V(x)) where V(x) is the voltage across the capacitor Cx and it models the normalized width x of the doped layer. F(V(x)) is the window function, k is  µvRON/D2 and x0 is the initial voltage of the capacitor.[6]. The relation between memristor current and voltage is modeled as on the basis of RMEM (x) = ROFF -xà ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  R where à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬  R= ROFF-RON. The voltage V(x) across the capacitor CX models the normalized width x of the doped layer. The initial state of x is modeled by the initial voltage of the capacitor. The flux is calculated by the time-integral of voltage, and the charge is calculated by the time-integral of current. Result and Discussion All models were simulated in LTSpice using SPICE model that was given in [6], we add new nonlinear window functions that was proposed by prodromakis and strukov to the model and compare all suggested window functions. memristor Figure 9: Memristor circuit. Figure 9 shows configuration of single memristor for measuring the behavior of memristor model in LTSPICE with a sine wave input voltage of 1.2V with 1Hz frequency. The values for the memristor parameters  µv, D, RON, ROFF and RINITIAL are 10-10cm2s-1V-1, 10 nm, 100ohm, 16kohm and 11Kohm. All model are using same window function parameter p=10. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultstrukovstrukov1.png Figure 10: Strukov memristor model voltage, IMEM, RMEM and normalized x. Figure 10 shows the simulation result of memristor SPICE model for Strukov window function of voltage, IMEM, RMEM and normalized x. As we can see, the current of the memristor, IMEM is varying up to approximately 100 µA for maximum of 1.2V voltage applied. The RMEM for this model show that the values are in range of 11kOhm till 12kohm which means the effect of the voltage applied to the memristor only give slightly changes on the value of the memristor. Noticed that when positive voltage is applied, the conductivity of the device increases thus the memristance is decrease. When negative voltage is applied, the resistivity of the device increase thus the memristance is also increase. This verifies the memristive system on the device. In normalize x graph, we also noticed that the normalized x is at higher state in the beginning. Figure 11 shows the I-V characteristic of the devices and the relationship between charge and flux. The charge and flux curve curves confirms the well known fact that there is a one-to-one correspondence between them in spite of the 1-4 hysteresis effect. Strukov memristor shows lack of flexibility of controlling the device. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultstrukovstrukov4.png Figure 11: Strukov memristor model I-V loop hysteresis and relationship of charge and flux. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultjoglekarjoglekar1.png Figure 12: Joglekar memristor model voltage, IMEM, RMEM and normalized x. Joglekar window function seems to be promising as the existence of controlling parameter. Figure 12 shows the simulation result of memristor SPICE model for Joglekar window function of voltage, IMEM, RMEM and normalized x. Same as strukov memristor, when positive voltage is applied, the conductivity of the device increases thus the memristance is decrease. When negative voltage is applied, the resistivity of the device increase thus the memristance is also increase. The current of the memristor, IMEM is varying up to approximately 300 µA for maximum of 1.2V voltage applied. Joglekar window function give higher current compared to others. It shows that the current in the memristor are much easier to move. The RMEM are within range of nearly 0ohm to 11kohm which give full range of value for the memristor. Figure 13 show the I-V hysteresis loop of the devices and the relationship between charge and flux. The switching behavior is much more sensitive on the voltage level than Strukov w indow function. But, in term of stability, Joglekar window function cannot perform for an arbitrary length of time. This failure is caused by the convergence issue where when the memristor reach w=0 or w=D, the state of the device cannot be further adjusted. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultjoglekarjoglekar4.png Figure 13: Joglekar memristor model I-V loop hysteresis and relationship of charge and flux. Biolek window functions are supposed to solve terminal state problem as in literature [4]. It should solve the boundry problem of the terminal state. Figure 14 and 15 shows the simulation result of memristor SPICE model for Biolek window function. The current of the memristor, IMEM is varying up to approximately 220 µA for maximum of 1.2V voltage applied. The RMEM are within range of nearly 1kohm to 11kohm. Figure 15 show the I-V hysteresis loop of the devices and the relationship between charge and flux. From the figures, we observe that the biolek memristor preserve the highly non-linear device characteristic behavior. In addition, Bioleks model allows for general asymmetric I-V device behavior modeling. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultbiolekbiolek1.png Figure 14: Biolek memristor model voltage, IMEM, RMEM and normalized x. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultbiolekbiolek4.png Figure 15: Biolek memristor model I-V loop hysteresis and relationship of charge and flux. Prodromakis window functions are also said to solve the boundry issue. Figure 16 shows the simulation result of memristor SPICE model for Joglekar window function of voltage, IMEM, RMEM and normalized x. The current of the memristor, IMEM is varying up to approximately nearly 180 µA for maximum of 1.2V voltage applied. The RMEM are within range of nearly 3kohm to 11kohm. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultprodromakisprodromakis1.png Figure 16: Prodromakis memristor model voltage, IMEM, RMEM and normalized x. Figure 17 show the I-V hysteresis loop of the devices and the relationship between charge and flux. The hysteresis loop is shown to be asymmetrical while the OFF state of the device is highly non-linear compared with other. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultprodromakisprodromakis4.png Figure 17: Prodromakis memristor model I-V loop hysteresis and relationship of charge and flux. In comparing of I-V characteristic hysteresis loop, as we can see in figure 18, it shows all hysteresis loops for all proposed window functions. By using same parameter we can see the difference in each model. Joglekar window function seems to have a strong memristance compared to others.All models seem to be a good approximation of the measurement of the real memristor produces by HP Labs. But, Prodromakis memristor model satisfies all the prerequisites and improves on the shortcomings of existing models. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultall iv loop hysteresisiv hysteresis loop all.png Figure 18: I-V Hysteresis Loop for all models. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultdiff parameterprodromakis p=1, p=5, p=10.png Figure 19: Prodromakis I-V Hysteresis Loop when p=1, p=5 and p=10. Then, we try change the parameter of p of the model. In this case, we use prodromakis memristor model and change the value of integer p=1, p=5 and p=10 to see the difference. As we can see in figure 19, as the value of p is increase, the hysteresis is shrinking. Similar with changing the parameter p, figure 20 also confirm that the hysteresis shrinks at higher frequencies. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultdiff frequency1hz-5hz.png Figure 20: Prodromakis I-V Hysteresis Loop when frequency f=1Hz, f=2Hz and f=5Hz. In term of power dissipation, as we simulates our results. We can get the value of maximum IMEM for each model. We can calculate the power by using P=IV equation. Table 2 show the maximum power dissipation for each memristor. Memristor model Max IMEM,  µA Power, W Strukov 100 µA 120 µW Joglekar 300  µA 360 µW Biolek 220 µA 264 µW Prodromakis 180  µA 216 µW Table 2: IMEM and Power dissipation for all at the memristor. As in table 2, we can see that the Strukov model give lowest power which is 120 µW while Joglekar model give much higher power dissipation which is about 360 µW compared to the others. We also noticed that as the memristor model is improves, the power become lesser. Prodromakis give quite good power dissipation which is 216 µW as the best windows function and model as till now. In implementing memristor with analog circtuit, we pick a two simple analog circuit to be tested. Figure 21 shows the SPICE topology of the memristor based integrator op amplifier with the input voltage Vp-p=2.4V from -1.2V to 1.2V and C1=25 µF. Using the memristor model that we create earlier with various types of window functions, we see the difference on the simulated result on each model. The values for the memristor parameters are same for all model with uv, D, RON, ROFF and RINITIAL are 10-10cm2s-1V-1, 10nm, 100ohm, 16kohm and 11Kohm. memristor integrator op amp Figure 21: Memristor Implemented Integrator Circuit C:UsersFadzDesktopresultintegrator+ve integrator .png Figure 22: Positive Integrator simulation C:UsersFadzDesktopresultintegrator-ve integrator .png Figure 23: Negative Integrator simulation Figure 22 and 23 shows the simulation result for the implemented memristor integrator op amplifier for positive input and negative input respectively. In this case, we implement prodromakis memristor to the integrator circuit. As we know, the integrator acts like a storage element that produces a  voltage  output which is proportional to the integral of its input voltage with respect to time. The magnitude of the output signal is determined by the length of time a voltage is present at its input as the  current  through the  feedback loop  charges or discharges the  capacitor  as the required  negative feedback  occurs through the capacitor. For positive starting input, we vary the voltage from 1.2V down to -1.2V and going back to 1.2V over time. When positive voltage are applied in the beginning, the output voltage tend to discharge and drop from 0V to negative voltage and charging back to 0V when the input voltage are drop to negative voltage. The output for neg ative voltage applied from starting point give a vice versa result. The charging and discharge are depends the voltage applied over time and the value of the capacitor. We can say the memristor models give quite good result for an integrator. Figure 24: Memristor Implemented Differentiator Circuit. C:UsersFadzDesktopresultdifferentiatordifferentiator.png Figure 25: Saw tooth input of Memristor implemented differentiator op-amp simulation. Figure 25 shows the simulation result for the implemented memristor differentiator op amplifier. We are using prodromakis memristor model for the memristor implementation. As we know, for differentiator op-amp, the magnitude of its output is determined by the rate at which the voltage is applied to its input changes. The faster the input voltage changes, the greater the output voltage becomes. If a saw tooth input signal is applied to the input of the differentiator op-amp a square wave signal will be produced. As we can see in figure 25, the simulation shows a quite good result for differentiator. We also noticed some spikes at the output voltage. Each spikes occurs only occurs the brief moment the saw tooth is changing from one level to the next. The voltage spikes represent a temporary output voltage. Conclusion As a conclusion to this research is that it could bring a new light of familiarization in the integration of memristive components in any kinds of electronic devices that are at nanoscale. It is useful to have a computer model of the memristor as a tool for the analysis of the behavior of the circuits in developing application of this memristor as passive circuit element via simulation. SPICE model will definitely help us to conduct interesting simulation experiments and can be of great importance for such a research in future while the memristor are still hard to fabricate to study the behavior of the circuit. Different models with strong behavior and reason give a lot of benefits in development purpose to create the possibilities of the implementation in an integrated circuit. The possibilities for implementation of the memristor with analog circuit are wide open. Appendix .SUBCKT memristor plus minus PARAMS: + Ron=100 Roff=16K Rinit=11K D=10N uv=10F p=10 *********************************************** * DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODELING * *********************************************** Gx 0 x value={ I(Emem)*uv*Ron/D**2*f(V(x),p)} Cx x 0 1 IC={(Roff-Rinit)/(Roff-Ron)} Raux x 0 1T * RESISTIVE PORT OF THE MEMRISTOR * *********************************************** Emem plus aux value={-I(Emem)*V(x)*(Roff-Ron)} Roff aux minus {Roff} *********************************************** *Flux computation* *********************************************** Eflux flux 0 value={SDT(V(plus,minus))} *********************************************** *Charge computation* *********************************************** Echarge charge 0 value={SDT(I(Emem))} *********************************************** * WINDOW FUNCTIONS * FOR NONLINEAR DRIFT MODELING * *********************************************** *proposed by joglekar ;.func f(x,p)={1-(2*x-1)**(2*p)} *proposed by biolek ;.func f(x,i)={1-(x-stp(-i))**(2*p)} *proposed by prodromakis ;.func f(x,p)={1-(((x-0.5)**2)+0.75)**p} *proposed by strukov .func f(x,p)={x-x*2} .ENDS memristor Acknowledgment This paper participates in the IEEE Student Conference Research Development SCORED 2012. The author would like to thank Dr. Wan Fazlida Hanim bte Abdullah for being supervisor in this final year project. The author also would like to thank Universiti Teknologi MARA for funding the research work through the Excellence Fund Grant 600-RMI/ST/DANA 5/3/RIF(360/2012).

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Religion, Myth, and Magic in Robertson Davies’s Fifth Business Essay

Religion, Myth, and Magic in Robertson Davies’s Fifth Business Interwoven with light and shadows, Robertson Davies’s Fifth Business is penetrated with fantastical elements that rub uneasily against feelings of guilt. A snowball thrown by young "Boy" Staunton misses Dunstan and hits Mary Dempster, causing the premature birth of Paul and the insanity of Mary. Guilt ensues and threatens to envelop Dunstable, Dunny, and Dunstan. One is his name by birth; the other a pet name; and the third, his true name upon being born again. With so many identities, Dunstan struggles to understand his role as fifth business and to learn to untie himself from his burden of guilt. Conventional religion may confine Dunstan Ramsay’s spiritual growth, but it lays a firm foundation for him to mature. Myth finds a place in the heart of Dunstan and teaches him to grow. Magic is the escape of yore that Dunstan seeks and successfully rediscovers. Religion, myth, and magic are intertwined in Dunstan Ramsay’s life, crucial for the completion of Ramsay as a person through the wonder they inspire. Dunstan Ramsay’s family, especially Dunstan’s authoritative mother, is the epitome of Scottish Presbyterianism in Dunstan’s life. The Scots are the paragons of common sense and prudence – they are not allowed the "usual failings normally associated with the human condition,"1 and Dunstan is indeed acutely aware of any shortcomings he might have. Though Dunstan declares that "the Scottish practicality that [he has] imitated from [his] parents [is] not really in grain with [him]"2, the "chilly Presbyterian ethos"3 remain. When he dodges Percy Boyd Staunton’s snowball and it hits Mary Dempster – which causes the premature birth of Paul and the "madness" of Mary – ... ...enreich, The Postwar Novel. p. 63. Robertson Davies. Fifth Business. p. 262. John Moss, Sex and Violence in the Canadian Novel. p. 103 Robertson Davies. Fifth Business. p. 217. Ibid. p. 221. Ibid. p. 226. Ibid. p. 227. Primary source: Davies, Robertson. Fifth Business. Toronto: Penguin Group, 1970. Secondary sources: Heidenreich, Rosmarin. The Postwar Novel. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1989. Little, Dave. Catching the Wind in a Net: the Religious Vision of Roberston Davies. Toronto, Ontario: ECW Press, 2996. Monk, Patricia. Mud and Magic: Robertson Davies’s Fifth Business. Don Mills, Ont.: ECW Press, 1992. Moss, John. Sex and Violence in the Canadian Novel. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland and Stewart, 1977. Quigley, Theresia, The Child Hero in the Canadian Novel. Toronto: NC Press Limited, 1991.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Clozapine and the Treatment of Schizophrenia Essay -- Biological Psych

Clozapine and the Treatment of Schizophrenia Clozapine, marketed by the trade name of "Clozaril," is a member of the dibenzodiazepine class of antipsychotic medication, and is one of many types of neuroleptic drugs. Clozapine is an atypical medication because it differs from the older conventional drugs such as Halodol or Lithium. The difference between atypical and the older drugs is because there less neuroleptic activity as a result of more specific receptors utilized. The atypical drugs work effectively to treat psychotic illnesses and tend to have fewer side effects than their predecessors. Clozapine has been found to be the most effective antipsychotic drug for treatment resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is used on a limited basis because of the risk of agranullocytosis, where white blood cells are destroyed faster than they are produced, causing the individual to be prone to other illnesses. Two other drugs, either one typical and one atypical, or two atypical medications are used and deemed ineffective before clozapine is used due to the this serious side effect, agranullocytosis. Even thought this risk happens to be small, 1% to 2%, the drug is normally viewed in the psychiatric field as a method of last resort.(Kentridge, 1995) The most common explanation for what occurs in the brain of a schizophrenic is the dopamine hypothesis, where certain areas of the brain have excessive activity at certain dopamine receptors.(Kalat, 2004) This theory will be a reoccurring theme when explaining how clozapine interacts with the body. There are also explanations dealing with clozapine's interaction with the serotonin 5HT2 receptors and the glutamate receptors. ... ...hin a week levels will increase with treatment of colazopine.(Naheed & Green, 2000) Andreasen, N.C. (1994). Schizophrenia: From Mind to Molecule. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Kalat, J. (2004). Biological Psychology. 8Th edition, Chapter 15.3. Kentridge, B. (1995). S2 Psychopathology Lecture 3: Schizophrenia. Retrieved March 4, 2005. From Http://www.dur.ac.uk/robert.kentridge/ppath3.html Mann, R. (1996). The Role of Dopamine Receptors in Schizophrenia. Retrieved March 3, 2005, From Stanford University, Chemistry department web site, http://www.chem.csustan.edu/chem44x0/SJBR/Mann.htm Naheed, M., & Green, B. (2000). Focus on Clozapine. Retrieved February 7, 2005. From http://www.priory.com/focus14.htm Waddinton, J.L., & Buckley, P.F. (1996). The neurodevelopmental Basis of Schizophrenia. Austin, TX: Landes Co. Clozapine and the Treatment of Schizophrenia Essay -- Biological Psych Clozapine and the Treatment of Schizophrenia Clozapine, marketed by the trade name of "Clozaril," is a member of the dibenzodiazepine class of antipsychotic medication, and is one of many types of neuroleptic drugs. Clozapine is an atypical medication because it differs from the older conventional drugs such as Halodol or Lithium. The difference between atypical and the older drugs is because there less neuroleptic activity as a result of more specific receptors utilized. The atypical drugs work effectively to treat psychotic illnesses and tend to have fewer side effects than their predecessors. Clozapine has been found to be the most effective antipsychotic drug for treatment resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is used on a limited basis because of the risk of agranullocytosis, where white blood cells are destroyed faster than they are produced, causing the individual to be prone to other illnesses. Two other drugs, either one typical and one atypical, or two atypical medications are used and deemed ineffective before clozapine is used due to the this serious side effect, agranullocytosis. Even thought this risk happens to be small, 1% to 2%, the drug is normally viewed in the psychiatric field as a method of last resort.(Kentridge, 1995) The most common explanation for what occurs in the brain of a schizophrenic is the dopamine hypothesis, where certain areas of the brain have excessive activity at certain dopamine receptors.(Kalat, 2004) This theory will be a reoccurring theme when explaining how clozapine interacts with the body. There are also explanations dealing with clozapine's interaction with the serotonin 5HT2 receptors and the glutamate receptors. ... ...hin a week levels will increase with treatment of colazopine.(Naheed & Green, 2000) Andreasen, N.C. (1994). Schizophrenia: From Mind to Molecule. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Kalat, J. (2004). Biological Psychology. 8Th edition, Chapter 15.3. Kentridge, B. (1995). S2 Psychopathology Lecture 3: Schizophrenia. Retrieved March 4, 2005. From Http://www.dur.ac.uk/robert.kentridge/ppath3.html Mann, R. (1996). The Role of Dopamine Receptors in Schizophrenia. Retrieved March 3, 2005, From Stanford University, Chemistry department web site, http://www.chem.csustan.edu/chem44x0/SJBR/Mann.htm Naheed, M., & Green, B. (2000). Focus on Clozapine. Retrieved February 7, 2005. From http://www.priory.com/focus14.htm Waddinton, J.L., & Buckley, P.F. (1996). The neurodevelopmental Basis of Schizophrenia. Austin, TX: Landes Co.

Childhood Contradictions :: Free Essays Online

Childhood Contradictions 1. Memories from my childhood are scarce and cloudy at best. Everything is distorted and it always seems like everyone is bigger than you, in more ways than one. From what I do remember, a major player in my development as a child was the overwhelming feeling of confusion. More times than not, I was confused by at least one of many things (authority, my own identity, physical, mental and emotional changes, etc). A child's confusion is due to the massive series of contradictions that is childhood itself. In Lewis Carroll's novels Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass , the meaning of childhood and what it is to be a child and literally live in a child's world takes on an entirely different meaning than ever before. Similarly, the computer game based on the novels, American McGee's Alice , gives an interesting perspective on the concept of childhood and the struggle to maturity. 2. The slew of contradictions in both of Lewis' novels is something that cannot be ignored, even by the most rudimentary of readers. The entire concept of the novels themselves is providing text which, in all honesty, seems to be complete nonsense and providing that nonsense with sense . This theory of sense from nonsense is clearly developed in Chapter 2 of Through the Looking Glass . In this chapter, titled â€Å"The Garden of Live Flowers,† Alice remarks to the flowers, â€Å"Aren't you sometimes frightened at being planted out here, with nobody to take care of you?† (Gray 121). In response to this remark, the Rose points out that â€Å"there's the tree in the middle† (Gray 122) as if that is supposed to give any sort of rational explanation for their feeling of security. When Alice asks what sort of protection a tree could provide, the Rose tells her that if any danger comes along the tree can bark. Now, this is an entirely ridiculous concept to begin with. The idea of inanimate objects having the ability to produce sound is complete nonsense to any rational person. However, the flowers give the tree's ability to bark and their ability to talk seemingly rational explanations. According to the Daisy, the tree â€Å"says ‘Bough-Wough!' That's why branches are called boughs!† (Gray 122). In response to the question about the flowers' proficiency at language, the Rose tells Alice that â€Å"in most gardens, they make the beds too soft - so that the flowers are always asleep† (Gray 122) and their flower bed is noticeably hard by comparison.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Fashion Mirrors Society Essay

One of the most stable industries in the contemporary society is the fashion industry. Fashion, because it manifests and affects every person, is one of the aspects that holds strong influence over the society. As the society undergoes changes, fashion is also subjected to these changes. And as such, there are people who merely abide with the current trends because of the dictates and influence of the mass media. Fashion is a way through which a person expresses his or her identity; as such, it is believed that the clothes that people wear is an extension of their personality. see more:essay on fashion The clothes manifests the people’s values, attitudes and behavior. In school, cliques and groups can be identified by means of their clothes. One can already judge a person’s personality through his or her looks which primarily consists of clothes and other fashion accessories that one wears. Fashion is considered as a phenomenon to dress up oneself; but it is also a reflection of the things that are currently happening in the society because it conforms to the present changes and the behavior of a particular society. It reflects the current popular culture as well as the alterations that are taking place in the society. People try to express their emotions, ideas and principles through various ways. Some people make use of various art forms as their own channel of expression. As individuals pursue alternative ways of expressing themselves, the concept of fashion becomes the best vehicle to bridge this pursuit. Fashion is something that every person has within him or herself. The clothes that people wear say something about themselves, regardless if they are or are not aware of the latest fashion trends. For every human being, it is one’s natural desire to achieve his or her own identity. As such, one would always wish to become a person who could stand out from the rest of the crowd. This goal is the reason behind every person’s fashion statements, especially the youth nowadays. However, the one thing that is certain is that fashion constantly changes. These fashion fads, trends and style undergo various changes over time. As such, the members of the society are constantly bombarded with new and innovative ideas in the world of fashion. Thus, it is a necessity for fashion agents to be always full of creative ideas that they can sell in the market (Alina, 2004). â€Å"Fashion is a means of self-expression that allows people to try on many roles in life. Whether you prefer hip-hop or Chanel-chic, fashion accommodates the chameleon in all of us† (Public Broadcasting Service, n. d. ). As such, fashion does reflect the values within a particular society of culture. It provides a certain non-verbal way of communicating and presenting oneself to the public. It serves as an extension one’s personality and identity. For example, a woman who wears Chanel or Yves Saint Laurent wardrobes and accessories can be perceived as a wealthy, sophisticated woman and a socialite. On the other hand, a man who prefers rugged jeans and tight-fitting shirts would probably be judged as a rough troublemaker. Thus, a person’s unique fashion statement clearly labels his or her personality in the community. As such, the clothes that one wears largely speak of his or her own self. Thus, clothing is indeed a powerful silent communicator. Some people argue that fashion does not depict the reality and may be utilized to conceal the unpleasant attributes of a person. People dress up in order to hide the things that they or other people dislike with them. Fashion may not also always reflect the person’s true identity because it can act as a form of disguise. Rather than speaking of the person’s real identity, people can use fashion to project an image that they want other people to perceive about them. As such, fashion plays an important role in the society and culture. Fashion is the basis or the foundation of everything that people do. In addition, fashion sets the standards of people’s activities. There is appropriate clothing style in every activity that people do; for example, people wear uniforms for their jobs in order to feel comfortable in doing their works. In most time, majority of the members of the society attempt to match their clothing, pets and even the food that they eat to what is considered as fashionable (Book Rags, 2006). Fashion also reflects society; some of the cultural characteristics are seen in the current fashion trends and styles. Fashion is embedded in the society and may be regarded as an important part of a whole. Scholars argue that, â€Å"Fashion does not directly or simplistically reflect the times; the fact that it is always and everywhere situated within a society and culture† (Entwistle, 2000, p. 80). The authors suggest that â€Å"fashion† is a connected concept from â€Å"society†. As such, fashion is directly related to the society because fashion is within the context of the society itself. â€Å"Fashion is embedded within culture and cannot be isolated as an independent variable† (Entwistle, 2000, p. 81). Thus, fashion changes along with the development of one’s society and culture; therefore, it is a part of a society or rather inculcated within it. In history, American garments are much different from today which is because of the fact that natives’ dresses and accessories are part of the culture. Natives and tribes wore beads or animal teeth around their neck as it is part of a certain tradition. Clothes, aside from being a basic necessity of the people, is also an integral part of cultural traditions and practices. Some of the clothes are the traditional clothing of a particular place. Fashion is culturally-initiated and it reflects the lifestyles of the members of the society. Like the bone and teeth that served as the accessories of the native Americans, it also showed how the people before hunt for food which is the main characteristic of their lifestyle. However, fashion or clothing is not an entirely reliable reflection of the society. The fashion statement of a person is an individual decision on how he or she would like to be perceived by others. Thus, the authenticity of this act can be doubted. The reliability of fashion requires the person’s honesty in dressing according to his or her own socio-economic status. Many people do otherwise; indeed, there are people who do not want to reveal their true socio-economic state because of several personal reasons. Nonetheless, according to Virginia Woolf in her novel Orlando, â€Å"it is clothes that wear us and not we them† (ctd. in Ribeiro, 2006, p. 348). Ribeiro (2006) adds in her description that, â€Å"she [Virginia] knew how dress carries within itself its own history of the past and dictates people’s expectations of us as wearers† (p. 348). Evidently, wardrobes have their own history as time progresses. The fact that societies with unstable mobility do have trends with regard to dressing shows that their fashion says a lot about them. It still identifies them as a group because of the uniformity of the way they put on and design their clothes. One of the many examples of how fashion reflects the modern society is in terms of consumerism. Before, people conserve as much it is possible; however, nowadays – just like the ever-changing fashion trends – people also try to change a lot about themselves. Consumerism is the offspring of advertising. Modern advertisements are too successful and effective in their field that they have influenced a great quantity of people to think that some â€Å"unnecessary† products are actually necessary. From a psychological perspective, it is believed that â€Å"[in] a sense, ‘consuming’ fulfills needs that will require other ways of being satisfied in a post-consumer society: the need to belong, the need for variety in life, the need to control your personal environment and your work† (Collis et. al. , 2009). In some countries, groups are identified through their clothes. The members of high-class society is perceived to wear elegant and extravagant clothing combined with various expensive ornaments. On the other hand, the members of the urban poor or those who live in poverty can be identified due to the filthy clothing they wear. People’s basic needs have extended from the concept of physical survival to the expensive concept of narcissism. Social and emotional needs are apparently the reasons why people engage in consumerism. As modern advertising progresses, people are becoming more influenced to consume and buy products that they do not really need. Fashion becomes synonymous to consumerism because as fashion trends change, consumers also avail of more market products to adapt to the change. Fashion is an integral part of society that reflects different principles, ideas and even stature in life. However, it is not a reliable mirror of society because of its ability to conceal the true self of the one who wears it. Moreover, the current fashion trends and styles do not cater for all members of the society. Rather, it caters only to the agents and perpetrators of these fashion trends. People are somehow defined through the clothes they wear; however, their attitude and behavior is still the most reliable source and reflection of one’s personality. References Alina, Y. (2004). Fashion in Modern Society. 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